Republican rule 1649-60

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  • Created on: 12-04-20 12:52
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  • Republican Rule, 1649-60
    • The Rump Parliament, 1649-53
      • After the execution of Charles, Cromwell and his supporters attempted to broaden their support for the government.
        • Did this by allowing many MP's back into Parliament.
          • This reinforced the tension between parliament and the army due to the reintroduction of conservative MP's.
            • This was because Conservative MP's were less likely to enact reforms.
      • In May 1649, the Rump abolished the monarchy and the House of Lords, and declared England to be a Commonwealth.
        • Short term, the New Model Army had to deal with the threat from Ireland and Scotland.
          • This delayed any confrontation with parliament over who held power.
      • Ireland
        • Parliament feared a possible Irish invasion of England
          • Feared they wanted to bring Chalres II to the throne.
          • Cromwell landed in Ireland in July 1649 and set about restoring English rule.
            • His methods were brutal.
              • The garrison at Drogheda was massacred because it refused to surrender, and the town of Wexford suffered a similar fate.
              • Cromwell left his generals to complete taking contorl of Ireland and returned to England in 1650 to deal with the threat from Scotland.
        • Scotland
          • Scotland was a big threat to republican rule.
            • Scottish officer David Leslie commanded a powerful army which he handed over to Charles II, provoking a third civil war.
              • Chalres II only had the title from the Scots, which was a big statement.
              • Cromwell defeated the Scots at Dunbar in 1650, and in 1651 he destoryed Chalres II's armies at Worcester.
                • After his defeat, Charles II fled to France and spend 9 years in exile.
                • Cromwell's successes in Ireland and Scotland ensured the survival of the republican government, and increased the prestige of the armed forces.
    • Between 1649-60, several attempts were made to establish a stable republican regime acceptable to the country as a whole.
      • The experiment failed, leading to the Stuart restoration in 1660.
    • The failure of the Rump Parliament
      • Failed to gain widespread support for it's rule due to:
        • Conservative nature of many MP's
        • Limited finances
          • Without substantial resources, the MP's of the Rump were less inclined to start significant reform.
        • Threat of Ireland and Scotland
          • Serious threats as the Rump had to employ its immediate resources and time.
        • Fear of radical religious groups
          • MPs were concerned at the developement of new groups and sought to reimpose religious control.
        • Fear of the New Model Army
          • Pride's Purge had shown the MPs of the Rump that the army held real power.
        • The Dutch War
          • Resources (that were already limited) and time were used on war with the Dutch, which broke out in 1652.
    • The Nominated Assembly, 1653
      • Composed of members nominated by the government.
        • They were religious radicals determined to estabish 'Godly rule' in the country.
      • Reached a few substancial achievements:
        • Civil marriage legalised.
        • Registers for births, marriages and deaths established.
        • The revenue system was reformed.
      • However, the Assembly lost the support of the political classes with its more radical proposals.
        • eg. propsed to abloish the tithe.
        • In December 1653, conservative members handed back the Assembly's powers to Cromwell.
    • The end of the Commonwealth, 1653
      • The 'Instrument of Government' of 1653 was a written constitution.
        • Aimed at giving the republic long-term stability.
      • The Commonwealth was replaced with the Protectorate.
      • Government was to be carried out by a Council of State.
        • A Parliament was to be elected every 3 years.
          • Oliver Cromwell was installed as Lord Protector.


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