First 263 words of the document:
The English Republic, 1649-60
The execution of Charles left the country confused and divided ruled by the Rump Parliament and the
Council of State who faced many problems domestically and abroad.
By 1653 the Rump was unsuccessful in gaining the needed support from the people as many saw
them as a group of MP's who had agreed to the execution of the King yet not brought in reforms
which many wished for.
The main source of disillusionment with the Rump came from the army and under the leadership of
Oliver Cromwell the army overthrew it replacing it with a nominated assembly chosen by the army.
However, by the winter of 1653 they had lost their credibility mainly due to the domination of
religious fanatics and it was replaced by the protectorate of Oliver Cromwell. He tried to balance the
differing groups which had appeared out of the upheavals of 1640s but the protectorate didn't last
Both of his parliaments were unsuccessful but did manage to provide some stability in this difficult
period and if he had lived longer the country would have eventually settled down under his
leadership as Lord Protector.
In 1657 he refused the Crown in the Humble Petition and Advice but veered towards a more
conservative regime when he died in September 1658.
Between the years 1649-58 the general theme was searching for a `quest for settlement' after the
upheavals of 1640s and Cromwell's success and failure in this quest.