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  • Reliability
    • Assessing reliability
      • def: the consistency of measurements. We would expect any measurement to produce the same data if taken on successive occasions
      • def: inter-observer rel: the extent to which there is agreement between 2 or more observers involved in observations of a behav
      • def: test-retest rel: the same test or interview is given to the same PPs on 2 occasions to see if the same results are obtained
        • correlational tests
    • Self-report techniques
      • test-retest
        • questionnaire given once and then given again to them a second time
        • must be a while between the questionnaires - they may remember answers
        • correlation can only be determined in closed questions (yes / no)
          • if interview, needs to be very structured
    • Banduras
      • Bobo doll -  observing the behaviour of the children and seeing how aggressive  behaviour was. The DV is often measured on a rating scale in these experiments.
      • Different researchers may rate the behaviour differently = issue for reliability because may lack consistency (inter-rater reliability)
    • Improving the reliability
      • reducing ambiguity
        • everything should be standardised
        • write of the procedure etc must be clear enough that someone else should be able to copy it exactly
        • questionnaires - clear questions, no leading qus, pilot study should pick up on this
    • Observational techniques
      • behavioural categories - may not have been operationalised clearly enough
      • need to identify the categories and clearly describe what is what
      • improving rel: clearly define categories
      • even if they are clearly defined, they make been mistaken. they make need to practice using the categories (in the pilot studies)


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