Reasoning and Decision-Making

  • Created by: katielou
  • Created on: 14-04-19 11:11
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  • Reasoning & Decision-Making
    • Reasoning tasks have 2 components: 1. Premises (info that supposedly provides support for conclusion), and 2. Conclusion (statement that claims to follow logically from info in premises)
    • Assessing Logic: 1. Soundness (conclusions follow logically from true premises), and 2. Validity (conclusions follow from premises). Can be valid and not sound, but not invalid and sound
    • Deductive Reasoning: drawing conclusions based on true info presented in premises - if info in premises is true, then conclusion is true - conclusions follow necessarily from premises
    • Inductive Reasoning: drawing conclusions based on untrue evidence - likelihood of truth, not guaranteed - circumstance might be true but conclusion is false
    • Decision-Making: Reasoning with a number of choices. Weigh costs (take away from goal) and benefits (towards goal) of decision to maximise value/utility = utility/normative (logical) theory
      • Choosing options best suited to individual isn't psychologically plausible
    • Descriptive invariance = everyone should make same choice regardless of how it's framed/described
      • Tversky & Kahneman (1981) - pps chose riskier options when scenario emphasised gain not loss (even though utility = identical) - framing violates descriptive invariance
        • Gain 200 survive (72%), loss 400 die (22%)

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