Reason and Experience - Rationalism

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  • Reason and Experience
    • Descartes
      • Proved that God exists through the Trademark argument
        • We have the idea of a perfect God, the cause must be of equal reality to the effect
        • God is the only perfection he created the idea which was stamped on our brains
      • Cogito Ergo Sum: I think therefore I am.
        • Cause must be equal or greater reality than the effect
      • He has the inclination to believe in it which is part of his nature, God made him this way and would not deceive him, so it exists.
      • either we made ourselves, were always here, parents are causes, something less than God made us or God made us.
        • If we made ourselves we would have made ourselves perfect. We are dependent on things, so we can't have always existed, parental causes implies an infinite regress and something less than God couldn't create that perfect idea.
    • Plato
      • Forms
        • Ideas (the idea for a football).
        • There are many in the physical realm but one in the realm of forms
      • Before birth we exist in the realm of forms where we learn them all, the shock of birth make us forget.
        • Learning is remembering.
    • Criticisms
      • Locke
        • Practical (moral) ideas are not innate, because they require experience. You couldn't understand love if you hadn't loved.
        • Speculative (maths and logic) cannot be understood by everyone either.
      • Even if learning is remembering there is no way to tell.
      • Solipsism: I am the only mind that exists and it is all that exists
        • We cannot share ideas, because we can't see into one another's minds to see their interpretations.
    • Kant
      • Conceptual Schemes- the way in which our mind organises information. people with the same conceptual schemes can share information
      • Two types of experience
        • Noumena-primary qualities (size, shape, number). We must loo harder to see it.
          • The world as it is projects Noumena with Phenomena on top.
        • Phenomena- secondary qualities (colour, smell). We immediately sense it.
          • The world as it is projects Noumena with Phenomena on top.
      • Our minds have twelve categories, that are innate and universal (A priori), which categorise sense data (synthetic) we do not really know of the categories, so we have tabula rasa, but the categories are hard wired-innate idea.
  • Descartes
    • Proved that God exists through the Trademark argument
      • We have the idea of a perfect God, the cause must be of equal reality to the effect
      • God is the only perfection he created the idea which was stamped on our brains
    • Cogito Ergo Sum: I think therefore I am.
      • Cause must be equal or greater reality than the effect
    • He has the inclination to believe in it which is part of his nature, God made him this way and would not deceive him, so it exists.
    • either we made ourselves, were always here, parents are causes, something less than God made us or God made us.
      • If we made ourselves we would have made ourselves perfect. We are dependent on things, so we can't have always existed, parental causes implies an infinite regress and something less than God couldn't create that perfect idea.

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