Ancient Philosophy: PLATO

  • Created by: _N27_
  • Created on: 11-10-18 17:37
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  • Ancient Philosophy: Plato
    • Rationalism
      • The belief that reason is the foundation of knowledge NOT experience
      • Plato
        • The belief that reason is the foundation of knowledge NOT experience
        • Theory of Forms
          • The Cave Analogy
            • Chains - our senses that restrict the way we experience things
            • Shadows - images, false visions of the truth/ illusions about reality
            • Cave - the empirical world that we see & hear around us
            • Escapee - the philosopher who is able to access knowledge
            • Prisoners - ordinary people in our world - (the world of Particulars)
            • Difficult Ascent - representing that the road to philosophical knowledge is hard
            • Outside World - the real world, the world of Forms
            • SUN - the Form of Good
              • Through the cave analogy, Plato is saying that philosophers should rule as they're the only ones who have true knowledge
                • He is also saying that it is the philosopher who is able to see and understand the good; they know what goodness is
          • Plato seems to pick what there are Forms of - he is certain that there are no Forms of mud or hair BUT at the same time physical objects are reflections of Forms - so there must be a Form of mud or hair.
            • Plato contradicts himself
          • Plato says that Forms are transcendent BUT if all humans die, justice doesn't exist
        • An elitist - he agues that unless you're a philosopher & use rationalism the you don't have true knowledge
        • Through the cave analogy, Plato is saying that philosophers should rule as they're the only ones who have true knowledge
          • He is also saying that it is the philosopher who is able to see and understand the good; they know what goodness is
      • Rationalism can't offer any evidence - Plato just expects people to agree with his reasoning
      • If the foundation of knowledge is reason, then we should be able to have knowledge of Forms without our senses BUT actually it seems that we experience first and then we use our reason
        • Therefore, experience is the foundation - empiricism

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