Quantitative Data Analysis

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  • Quantitative Data Analysis
    • Measures of Central Tendency
      • Mean
        • Advantage
          • It makes us of the values of all the data
        • Calculated by adding all the numbers and dividing by the number of numbers
        • Disadvantage
          • It can be misrepresentative of the data as a whole if there are extreme values
          • It cannot be used with nominal data
      • Median
        • Advantage
          • Not affected by extreme scores
        • Disadvantage
          • Not as 'sensitive' as the mean because not all values are reflected in the median
        • The middle value in an ordered list
      • Mode
        • Advantage
          • Useful when the data are in categories i.e. nominal data
        • Disadvantage
          • Not useful way of describing data when there are several modes
        • The value that is most common
    • Measures of Dispersion
      • Range
        • Advantage
          • Provides you with direct information
          • Easy to calculate
        • Take the smallest number away from the largest number
        • Disadvantage
          • Affected by extreme values
          • Doesn't take into account the number of observations in the data set
      • Standard Deviation
        • This is a measure of the spread of the data around the mean
        • Advantage
          • More precise measure of dispersion because all values taken into account
        • Disadvantage
          • May hide some of the characteristics of the data set (e.g. extreme values)
    • Visual Data
      • Scatter
        • A kind of graph used when doing correlational analysis
      • Bar
        • The height of the bar represents frequency. Shows data in categories but also suitable for numbers.
      • Line
        • As with a bar chart , the y axis represents frequency but, in this case, the values along the x axis must be continuous i.e. data that have some implicit order such as numerical data but not categories of things such as favourite football teams
      • Tables
        • The numbers you collect are referred to as 'raw data' - numbers that haven't been treated in any way. These data can be set out in a table or summarised using measures of central tendency and range


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