PY3- Experimental Types

  • Created by: Anna
  • Created on: 02-06-15 14:29
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  • PY3
    • Experiment Types
      • Laboratory Experiment: Conducted in controlled articifical setting where particapants are aware they are taking part in a study
        • Disadvantage 1: Low realism, studies lack ecological validity because of the artifical settings
        • Advantages 1: IV can be manipulated showing direct cause and effect.
        • Advantage 2: Can be easily replicated improving reliablity and validity
        • Disadvantage 2: Demand charateristics are likely to occur because the aim of the study can be easily guessed by participants.
      • Field experiement: Conducted in a more natural setting but IV can still be manipluated. Particpants are less aware they are taking part.
        • Advatanage 1: High realism because of the real life setting, and therefore hgh ecological validity
        • Advantage 2: Less liekly to have demand charateristics because particpants are less aware of the experimenter.
        • Disadvantage 1: Lack of Control, means it's more difficult to fully establish cause and effect
        • Disadvantage 2: Extranous variables are less likely to control due to the more natural setting meaning they could effect results.
      • Natural Experiment: Conducted in real world setting, experimenter will make use of exsiting IV instead of deliberating manipulating it.
        • Advantage 1: High ecological validity, becaus it is done in a real life setting any results can be generalised
        • Advantage 2: Appropriate methods are used for the study to occur naturally.
        • Disadvantage 1: Harder to replicate dure to the lack of control with extraneous variables
        • Disadvantage 2: Extraneous variables aren't controlled therefore the study would lack validity.
    • Non-experimental investigations
      • Questionnaires and Interviews: used to find out what people think/feel (either face to face or written questions)
        • Advantage 1: Qs- can be easily repeated          Is- Can provide unexpected rich data
        • Disadvantage 1: Social Desireability Bias
        • Disadvantage 2: Produce Qualitative data which is difficult to analyse
      • Case Studies: Detailed study of an individual
        • Advantage 1: Complex interaction means many factors can be studied
        • Advantage 2: Rich in-depth data can be collected
        • Disadvantage 1: Difficult to generalise an individuals case due to unquie charateristics
        • Disadvantage 2: Subjective interpretation, so it lack objectivity
      • Correlational Analysis: Merasure relationship between 2+ variables to see trends/patterns
        • Advantage 1: Provided precise quantative data (numerical)
        • Advantage 2: If large amounts of data is used it can be easily repeated
        • Disadvantage 1: Cannot see cause and effect; it's only a degree of measurment
        • Disadvantage2: Studie can lack internal/ external validity which cannot be established
      • Observational Studies: Psychologists observe behaviour with use of sample methods and behaviour checklists to record.
        • Advantage 1: Provides rich detalied image of how people behave- more valid
        • Disadvantage 1: Lack reliability
        • Disadvantage 2: Observer bias can affect expectations and results
      • Content Analysis: Observing behaviour by looking at pre-exsisiting material produced by ppts.
        • Advanatage 1: High ecological valdity as observations are made of things that people actually do.
        • Disadvantage 1: Observer Bias can effect research


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