The Processes of Globalisation

Main source: A2 AQA Nelson Thornes Geography Book by John Smith and Roger Knill

The the different aspects of the flows of globalisation

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  • Process of Globalisation
    • Flows of Capital and Information
      • ICT in late 20th and 21st century allow cheap, reliable and almost instantaneous communication
      • Sharing of information and allow transfer of capital
      • global market
    • Flows of People and Labour
      • Improvements in transport allow easy movement of people
      • Refugees from conflicts; although they usually migrate to the nearest possible refuge
      • Increased size of aircraft means more people and lower costs per person
      • Unskilled workers forcibly migrate illegally to richer nations to protect their population from workers who are willing to accept low wages and poor working conditions
      • Growth of low-cost airlines and integrated air movement networks, often bases on major international hubs feeding national and international services
      • allow international and intercontinental tourism
      • movement by sea, air and road
      • high speed rail networks
      • movement of specialised workers on temporary and permanent basis
    • Flows of Products and Services
      • Container revolution - loading of large containers of products
      • Integrated networks and computerised logistics systems for transport
    • Global Market
      • Marketing on a worldwide scale, reconciling or taking commercial advantage of global operational differences, similarities and opportunities in order to meet global onjectives
      • when a company becomes a global marketeer, it views the world as one marketplace and products appropriate for various regional marketplaces
      • The ultimate goal is to sell the same product in the same way everywhere
        • For example Coca-Cola is selling the same product worldwide with only minor changes for different markets
      • Advantages for TNCs
        • Manufacturing can move to countries and regions where production costs are cheaper
        • Cost of R&D of products can be spread across many more sales, reducing unit costs and increasing profits
        • Brand loyalty can be encouraged as people migrate
  • Flows of People and Labour
    • Improvements in transport allow easy movement of people
    • Refugees from conflicts; although they usually migrate to the nearest possible refuge
    • Increased size of aircraft means more people and lower costs per person
    • Unskilled workers forcibly migrate illegally to richer nations to protect their population from workers who are willing to accept low wages and poor working conditions
    • Growth of low-cost airlines and integrated air movement networks, often bases on major international hubs feeding national and international services
    • allow international and intercontinental tourism
    • movement by sea, air and road
    • high speed rail networks
    • movement of specialised workers on temporary and permanent basis
  • Advantages for TNCs
    • Manufacturing can move to countries and regions where production costs are cheaper
    • Cost of R&D of products can be spread across many more sales, reducing unit costs and increasing profits
    • Brand loyalty can be encouraged as people migrate

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