- predicting and forecasting hazards
- Earthquakes - CANNOT be predicted. Areas which may be vulnerable to liquefaction and ground shaking may have land-use zoning. SEISMIC GAPS where an earthquake is 'overdue' may mean an area is at high risk.
- Volcanic eruptions - CAN be predicted. Thermal imaging can measure magma chambers filling. TILT-METERS measure a volcano bulging. SEIS-MOMETERS record minor pre-eruption earthquakes. GAS SPEC measures emissions.
- Tsunami - PARTLY predicted. earthquake-induced ones cannot be predicted. SEIS-MOMETERS can tell us where an earthquake has occurred; and where a tsunami is in the open sea.
- Technology is expensive, some countries may not be able to afford. It may be difficult to notify distant, isolated areas.