Hazard Management: A Variety of Approaches

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  • Hazard Management: A Variety of Approaches
    • The Swiss Cheese Model
      • Hazard and disaster risk can be reduced
        • Reduce systematic weaknesses
        • Reduce the scale of the system weaknesses
      • Framework for hazard management
        • Modifying the hazard event
        • Modifying vulnerability and resilience
          • Individual
          • Commuity
          • Country
        • Modifying the loss
    • Modifying the Hazard Event
      • Micro Protection
        • Strengthening individual buildings
      • Macro Protection
        • Large-scale protective measure to protect communities
      • Earthquakes
        • Mostly micro approaches
          • Keeping hospitals, police stations and pipelines operational
          • Schools and factories strengthened for shelter
          • Retrofit programmes to strengthen buildings
      • Tsunamis
        • Tsunami walls
        • Replanting of coasts
          • Mangroves act a buffer
            • Absorbing energy of waves
            • Reduce flow speed
            • Reduce height
      • Volcanoes
        • Diverting and chilling lava flows
          • Spraying sea water
    • Modifying Vulnerability and Resilience
      • Approaches and Adaptations
        • Prediction, forecasting and warnings
          • Tsunami warning system
            • Detect tsunamis in advance and issue warnings
            • Network of sensors
        • Improvements in community preparedness
        • Working with groups
          • Land-use planning
        • Governance has limitations of affordability on prediction and prevention measures
        • Adaption is modifying resilience
          • How well an individual, community or country recovers from a hazard
      • Volcanoes: A Hazard Vulnerability Success Story?
        • Volcanoes usually give warning
          • Small earthquakes
          • Swelling of ground surface
        • Network sensors predict eurption
          • Evacuation
            • Death toll reduced since 1980
      • Science to Reduce Earthquake Vulnerability
        • The National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Protection deployed 1000 motion accelerometeres
          • Kyoshin Network
          • Primary and secondary wave velocities are measured and logged during earthquakes
            • Data is sent to the municipality and used for local emergency management and response
        • UN World Food Programme
          • Use technology and communication
            • Facebook
            • Twitter
    • Modifying the Loss
      • Seismologists work with computer risk analysts to help insurance companies calculate premiums and risk
        • 70% of people are unprotected
        • Insurance companies tend not to insure for damage done by shock waves and tremors
      • Computers estimate damage
        • Seismicity
          • How frequent earthquakes are
        • Seismic hazard
          • Strength of shaking
        • Seismic risk
          • Amount of risk
      • Disaster Aid and Internal Governmental Aid
        • The aid is for protecting life, health, subsistence and physical security
        • There are poor or corrupt distributions
      • A Complex Risk Environment
        • Governments and businesses remain unprepared for tectonic hazards
          • Poor governments don't have the resources or technical expertise
        • Governments must strengthen planning processes
          • Clarity of process in the chains of command
          • Activating and connecting independent local experts with policymakers
      • Hyogo and Sendai approach to Disaster Management
        • The World Conference on Disaster Reduction was held in Hygogo in 2005
          • Established a framework for action
            • Promote a strategic and systematic approach to reducing vulnerability and risks to hazards through building the resilience of nations and communities to disasters
            • Replaced by the Sendai Framework 2015
              • Understanding disaster risk
              • Strengthening governance to manage disaster risk
              • Investing in disaster-risk reduction enhancing disaster preparedness for effective response
              • Build back better

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