Westphal (Pre-Kantian philosophical Theology)

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  • Created by: gracetsp
  • Created on: 13-06-13 10:07
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  • Pre-Kantian Philosophical Theology
    • Scholastic/ Deistic
      • Scholasticism = main learning method of the middle ages (Reason + Revelation and faith work syncretise)
        • Revealed through means such as Holy Scripture and Bible. Links to Divine Command Theory.
          • Problem - demands you accept that the Bible is completely true - therefore other religions are wrong - doesnt work in secular society
            • Aquinas - study world, draw rational conclusions about God but conclusions must fit with religious teaching and church
              • Requires rejection of special revelation - makes religion particular to church
      • Deism = Focus on reason over faith . Enlightenment move to unite denominations. Arose from the need for religion to encouraage moral unity rather than hostility
        • Requires rejection of special revelation - makes religion particular to church
    • Enlightenment
      • Flourished in the 70's - marked end pf middle ages and end of "darkness" of superstition and religion
        • Philosophers now tended to be Rationalists such as Spinoza, Descartes . In England = Empiricists eh Hibbes and Locke - Westphal argues - both unites in enlightenment in opposing faith based knowledge
          • Creation of Deism - rejection of revelation. 3 characteristics of Deism.
            • Enlightenment
              • Flourished in the 70's - marked end pf middle ages and end of "darkness" of superstition and religion
                • Philosophers now tended to be Rationalists such as Spinoza, Descartes . In England = Empiricists eh Hibbes and Locke - Westphal argues - both unites in enlightenment in opposing faith based knowledge
                  • Creation of Deism - rejection of revelation. 3 characteristics of Deism.
                    • 1) Kernel and Husk (Religion has Central Ideas but things like rituals are unimportant)
                      • 2) Religious Tolerence - Centuries before = wars between Catholics and Protestants - praying to saints caused tension (Removed by Deists)
                        • 3) Anti Clericalism - rejecting political power of church
                    • Link to Kantian Ethics such as deontology and the reason based principles such as catagorical imperative
            • 1) Kernel and Husk (Religion has Central Ideas but things like rituals are unimportant)
              • 2) Religious Tolerence - Centuries before = wars between Catholics and Protestants - praying to saints caused tension (Removed by Deists)
                • 3) Anti Clericalism - rejecting political power of church
            • Link to Kantian Ethics such as deontology and the reason based principles such as catagorical imperative
    • Kernal/ Husk
      • Schlieiermacher - "God Is not found in rituals" - Husk
        • However - differs to kant - didnt dismiss emotion - said "gefuhlen" only true way to experience God
      • Kernel = God as creator . Husk = anything miraculous
    • Church
      • Pre enlightenment = absolutsit monarchy and overriding church authority
        • Kant applauded Frederick the Great King od Prussia for making no attempt to regualte religious life and allowing public use of reason
    • Ontological/ Teleological/ Cosmological Critiques
      • HUME/KANT CRITICISMS UNDERMINE BOTH DEISM AND SCHOLASTICISM
        • Hume (Design) - fact that universe is designed doesnt make it necessary that God created it - does it even need a designer?
          • Pure Chance ?
        • Kant (Ontological) existence is not a predicate
      • Hume (Cosmoloigcal) Hume maintained that we have no experience of universes being made and it is simply not possible to argue from causes within the universe to causes of the universe as a whole
        • Kant Cosmoloigcal  - Necessary Being’ was incoherent but also because our knowledge is limited to the phenomenal world of space and time

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