Philosophy and Ethics Revision

Philosophy Section

The Ethics Section

©       Religious Experience

©      TheOntological Argument

©       Critiques of Philosophy

©       Life after death

©       Virtue ethics

©     Objectivism,Subjectivism, Relativism

©       Justice Law and punishment

©       Natural Moral Law

please note *not all the content written is mine, I have collected from a number of resources, I hope it helps :)

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Revision for Philosophy and Ethics Summer 2012

About the Exam: There are two RS papers, the first is on May 31st and the other is on the
11th June. The first exam is the developments paper where you are required to write 3 essays
(each 30 marks) this paper is…

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The Different Philosophers, Their centuries and their books:

Aristotle C3 Nichomachean Ethics Unknown
Anselm C11 Proslogion Theist
Augustine C4/5 Confessions Theist
Aquinas C13 Summa Theologica Theist
Buber C20 I and Thou Theist
AJ Ayer C20 The Central Questions of philosophy Atheist
Brian Davies C20 Thinking about God, and an introduction…

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The Ontological Argument:

An argument for the existence of God was named the `Ontological Argument' by a
German Philosopher, Immanuel Kant in the eighteenth century.
Ontology is a branch of metaphysics and is concerned with the nature and relations
of being `Onto' meaning being from the ancient Greek language.

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Anselm explained that God is In re he is reality rather than De ray, part of reality. This
is regarded as a higher status than being in intellectu.
This can be shown using the example of a painting in Anselm's second form of the
argument a painting is superior in…

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C17 `Meditations'
rationalist philosopher
He was a devout Catholic and agreed with Anselm that perfection is necessary for
Reformulated the ontological argument.
He believed that reason was very important and experience from the senses is
inferior to this.
His most important and acknowledged quote `Cogito, Ergo sum, I…

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C18 `Dialogues concerning natural religion'
Considers the argument a failure because it has made a false assumption on the
subject of existence.
He believed that the existence of God was incoherent contingent.
Therefore existence is only contingent and any form of existence that is not analytically
true is just…

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Uses an example of the equator to show how the existence of God cannot be seen as
a predicate because it is written in an antirealist context.
Therefore overall Anselm's proof fails.
No one claims that the equator does not exist, however in the flesh the equator does

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There are a variety of different forms to the ontological argument
Gödel C20 who postulated a mathematical form for the existence of God
Leibniz C18 who stresses the perfections of God.
The Islamic religion also has a form of the argument called the `Suhrawardi Method'
created by Avicenna.

Strengths Weaknesses:…

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On the one hand the ontological argument can work for the atheist, as an atheist will
not have aposterirori knowledge of God.
Looking at the existence of God in logical perspectives appeals to many atheists, as it
allows them to see the Christian viewpoint as well as allowing them…

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The Ontological Timeline

Religious Experience: At A level we are looking at the argument for the existence of
God, Not just the concept of religious experience. The main difference is reason,
moving word of thoughts and feelings being verified as rational reasons for the
existence of God.

The Beginning Paragraph:…


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