Science B1 - Photosynthesis (self notes)

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  • Photosynthesis
    • equation for photosynthesis.
      • word equation = water + carbon dioxide --->(sunlight) oxygen + glucose.
      • (balanced) symbol equation = H2O + 6CO2 -> 6O2 + C6H12O6.
    • plants make their own food by photosynthesis.
      • photosynthetic organisms e.g. green plants and algae use energy from sun or other source to make glucose.
        • some of the glucose makes larger, complex molecules that the plant needs to grow. These make up the plants biomass - mass of living material.
          • energy stored in the plants biomass then works its way through the food chain, photosynthic organisms support nearly all life on earth as animals eat them and each other.
            • photosynthesis happens inside the chloroplast - they contain chlorophyll which absorbs light . energy is transferred to the chloroplasts by light.
              • photosynthesis is an endothermic reaction - energy transferred from the environment during it.
                • two main stages:         1) energy transferred by light is used to split water into oxygen gas and hydrogen ions.                2) carbon dioxide gas then combines with the hydrogen ions to make glucose.
    • key terms.
      • diffuse = to move into areas of a lower concentrationof gases from an area of high concentration
      • osmosis = the movement of water molecules from areas of high to low concentratio across a semipermeable membrane.
        • semipermeable membrane = a type of biological or synthetic, polymeric membrane that allows certain molecules or ions to pass through by diffusion.
      • stomata = holes in leaves which carbon dioxide diffuse through.
        • carbon dioxide diffuses from the air into the stomata
          • diffuse = to move into areas of a lower concentrationof gases from an area of high concentration
      • root hair cell = absorbs water from the plant.
        • water enters the root hair cells from the soil by osmosis
          • osmosis = the movement of water molecules from areas of high to low concentratio across a semipermeable membrane.
            • semipermeable membrane = a type of biological or synthetic, polymeric membrane that allows certain molecules or ions to pass through by diffusion.

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