Personal Rule and its Failure (1629-40)

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  • Created on: 04-02-20 18:06
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  • Personal rule and its failure (1629-40)
    • Finance
      • Needed to secure his financial position so that he didnt have to recall Parliament.
      • Peace with France (1629) and Spain (1630) enabled him to reduce his major costs.
      • He exploited traditional feudal dues as they didn't need Parlimentary approval.
        • eg. monopolies granted to merchants so that they had the exclusive rights to import a product and set the prices as high as they wished.
      • Key source of income was Ship Tax.
        • Traditionally, it was levied by monarchs once or twice during their reign on the coastal counties for defence purposes.
        • In 1635 it was extended as a national tax to all counties until Parliaments recall in 1640.
          • Very successful for Charles, although controversial.
            • At a time where Parliamentary substedies were worth about £70,000, the ship tax gave Charles about £200,000 annually.
            • Hampden Case
              • In 1637 John Hampden refused to pay the tax, challenging the legality of it.
                • His trial became a test case on the taxes legality (Parliament didn't consent).
                  • The verdict of the trial was that 7 out of 12 judges upheld the taxes legality, which was alarming for the pubic as it meant the King could tax without Parliamentary approval.
    • Religion
      • Imposed Arminianism through William Laud, who he appointed Archbishop of Canterbury in 1633.
        • Key measures of Laudianism focused on the 'beauty of holiness'
          • Eg. through wearing vestments and the use of music, candles and alter cloths (Catholic traditions).
          • To ensure conformity, these measures were enforced through the use of supervision and visits via church courts.
            • Bishops representatives reported which churches were conforming and brought any offenders before church courts.
    • Scotland
      • Charles tried to impose the Laudian prayer book on the Presbytarian Scotland (1637).
        • Widespread rioting broke out.
        • In 1638 many nobels and clergy signed the National Covenant, swearing to resist all changes.
          • Military conflicts followed, known as the Bishops War
            • Scots were well organised while Charles had run out of money to fund a war with.
              • Forced Chalres to recall Parliament for finance.


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