The personal rule of Charles I 1629-40

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  • THE PERSONAL RULE OF CHARLES I 1629-1640
    • ROYAL FINANCES
      • Sources of income
        • FINES - anyone who encroached on Crown land, built houses outside London's walls, didn't pay for knighthoods could be fined
        • COURT OF WARDS - Crown took income of uderage heirs to land(doubled income from 1625-1640
      • Ship money
        • OPPOSITION - serious but not significant apart from HAMPDEN 1637 (challenged SM but judges in favour of Charles 7-5, amount collected decreased)
        • collected by Sheriffs - successful at first but dropped with price of food
      • underfunded throughout but enough to keep success of government
    • RELIGIOUS ISSUES
      • Protestant Church
        • Conservative - liked ceremony + tradition, accepted old Catholic liturgy + wanted to keep church decoration
        • Puritan - radicals who wanted no imagery or decoration + took communion at simple tables
    • LAUD'S REFORMS
      • Denied predestination + stressed importance of ceremony and ritual in services
      • Believed Rome was in error but not as seriously as Puritans
      • Wanted to restore quality of clergy + fabric of churches
      • Actions
        • Altars to be moved to east of church and railed in + return of images and silver + gold
        • Encouraged visitations of churches by Bishops to check up on Puritans
        • Foreign churches attacked + wandering Puritan clergy rounded up
    • OPPOSITION TO RELIGIOUS REFORM
      • Open opposition limited during 1630s but in 1637 Bishop Williams of Lincoln sent to tower due to opposition of Laudian reforms
      • LIttle persecution of Puritans
      • No martyrs of Laud's reforms - those punished mutilated but not executed
      • Hard to oppose religion without opposing the King too
    • OPPOSITION TO RELIGION IN SCOTLAND
      • Far greater than in England - Church was more Puritan + Charles wanted to bring it into line with CofE
      • 1637 - introduced  prayer book 1638 - Scottish rebellion over prayer book
      • 1639 FIRST BISHOPS' WAR
    • RECALL OF PARLIAMENT + THE ROAD TO WAR
      • Start of 1640 civil war = unlikely
      • April-May 1640 = short parliament, called as advised by Strafford
        • Refused to grant supplies without redress of grievances (many were Puritans)
      • August - October 1640 SECOND BISHOPS' WAR
      • November 1640 = long parliament called
    • 1640 = Laud + Strafford impeached  as evil counsellors + petition that episcopacy should be abolished
      • 1641 = Triennial Act (parliament to meet every 3 years), Strafford's trial (high treason), Irish Rebellion, Grand Remonstrance
        • 1642 = Charles attempts to arrest 5 MPs + fails to use troops to shut down parliament

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