The personal rule of Charles I, 1629-40: finance; roles of Strafford and Laud and the extent of opposition

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TOPIC ONE: The personal rule of Charles I, 1629-40: finance; roles of Strafford and Laud and the extent of opposition

Timeline of Events

1929

  • 2nd session of Charles’ third Parliament

  • Speaker Finch prevented from adjourning the Commons until three resolutions were passed against extra-Parliamentary tonnage and poundage and religious innovations

  • King dissolved Parliament

  • Peace made with France.

1630

  • Closer relationship with Henrietta Maria after death of Buckingham.

  • Exchequer judges confirmed the King’s right to fine landowners worth £40 per annum or more who had not received a knighthood

  • Peace made with Spain

1631

  • Bad harvests ‘29 and ‘30, soaring food prices and food riots prompts privy council to issue Book of Orders

1632

  • Wentworth appointed Lord Deputy of Ireland

1633

  • Charles visited Scotland (crowned in June) and decides to introduce Prayer Book there

  • Prynne sent to the Tower for writing Histomatrix, condemning stage plays (ears cut off in ‘34 as a punishment)

  • Abolition of the Feoffees for impropriations, established in 1625 to buy impropriated tithes + use them to employ Puritan lecturers

  • Laud archbishop of Cantebury

1634

  • Sir Robert Heath, chief justice of the common pleas, dismissed for opposition to Laudianism

  • First ship money writs to maritime counties

  • Restoration of the monopoly of the Company of merchant adventurers

1635

  • Commission on depopulation established to raise money by selling licenses confirming illegal enclosures

  • Ship money levied on whole country

  • Revival of forest courts to raise money by fines

  • Judges declared that Ship money was illegal

  • New ecclestial canons issued in Scotland

1637

  • Prynne, Bastwick and Burton branded + ears cut off for publishing anti-episcopal pamphlets

  • Riots in St. Giles Church, Edinburgh against the English Prayer Book

  • Petitioning movement Scotland against new prayer book

  • Trial of John Hampden for refusing to pay ship money began in the exchequer court, final judgement against Hampden was given by a majority 7:5 vote in June 1638

1638

  • Scottish National Assembly drew up a National Covenant abolishing the Book of Common Prayer

  • Scottish Assembly abolished Bishops, provoked military action by the English against the Scots (the First Bishops’ War)

1639

  • First Anglo-Scottish Bishop’s War ended by the Truce of Berwick

  • Wentworth returned from Ireland and advised the recall of Parliament in England

1640

  • Wentworth created earl of Strafford and lord Lieutenant of Ireland

  • Short Parliament met + dissolved

  • Second Anglo-Bishops’ war began. Scottish troops occupied Newcastle; Scottish conservative nobles signed the Cumbernauld Bond against the Covenanters

  • English troops defeated in second Bishops’ War, ended by Treaty of Ripon

  • Long Parliament called November, attacks on ship money, impeachment proceedings began against Strafford and Laud, new ecclesiastical canons condemned

  • London Root and Branch Petition against bishops presented to Parliament

Personal Rule: Finance

  • Magna Carta forbade King from raising taxes without Parliament’s consent, needed to be careful

  • War years left crown in financial distress - deficit £2 million by 1629

  • Sir Richard Weston Lord Treasurer: reduced pensions by over a third, increased fines on Catholics by five, Kishlansky “a manager rather than a reformer”

  • William Noy, Attorney General instructed

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