Part 1 of the Civil Rights Movement in America

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  • Civil Rights Movement
    • Plessy v. Fergusson
      • 1896
      • "Separate but equal"
        • The standards of black facilities were usually way worse, therefore not equal. Especially worse in the South.
      • Constitutional for the segregation between black and white people.
      • It made Jim Crow laws constitutional.
    • Armed Forces
      • President Truman desegregated them in World War 2.
      • Desegregated in 1948
      • The units were segregated.
    • Voting Rights
      • Whites used many tactics to try and prevent the black people from being able to vote.
      • Grandfather clause - this meant that anyone with an ancestor who voted before the civil war didn't have to pay poll tax.
      • Poll tax - many southern states required people to pay tax to vote.
      • Literacy test - in order to vote people had to pass a literacy test. Some of these were rigged so black people couldn't pass.
      • The tax and test were used because many black people were uneducated or did not have a well payed job.
    • Who was fighting?
      • NAACP
        • Focused on fighting court cases.
        • Main lawyer was Thurgood Marshall.
        • Helped wrongly convicted black people.
        • By the 1950s their aim was to end segregation.
        • They won many cases. However the rulings were rarely followed in the south.
        • National Association for the Advancement of Couloured People.
      • CORE
        • Congress of Racial Equality
        • Non-violent methods like boycotts, sit-ins and pickets.
        • Mainly active in the North.
      • RCNL
        • Regional Council of ***** Leadership
        • Campaigned for equal facilities not desegregation
        • Held large protests and rallies.
        • Died out by the 1960s.
      • Black Churches
        • Black clergymen were good leaders because they were educated, public speakers and organise events.
        • They were the centre of black communities.
        • Gathered at churches for meetings and marches.
        • Usually more successful because of their Christian morals.
    • Murder of Emmett Till
      • 1955 in Mississippi
      • A 14 year old black boy.
      • He supposedly cat-called a white lady.
      • Bryant (the white lady's husband) and Milam abducted Till in the night a few days later.
      • He was beaten beyond recognition, shot, and thrown in a river weighed down by a large metal fan attached by barbed wire.
      • It was not a rare murder but it stood out because it was an open casket funeral so gained huge publiccity.


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