- The NAACP was founded on February 12, 1909 by W.E.B Du Bois.
- The campaign for desegregation culminated in a unanimous 1954 Supreme Court decision in Brown vs Topeka that held segration in schools illegal.
- The NAACP also took part in the Montgomery Bus Boycott and the Little Rock Case.
- In 1957 Martin Luther King formed the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC).
- Based in Atlanta, Georgia
- The main objective of the SCLC was to coordinate and assist local organizations working for the full equality of African Americans.
- The organisation was committed to using nonviolence in the struggle for civil rights, and SCLC adopted the motto: "Not one hair of one head of one person should be harmed."
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- The Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) was founded in 1942 by a group of students in Chicago. James Farmer was the founder
- Members were mainly pacafists who had been deeply influenced by Henry David Thoreau and the teachings of Mahatma Gandhi and the nonviolent civil disobedience campaign that he used successfully against British rule in India.
- The students became convinced that the same methods could be employed by blacks to obtain civil right in America.
- In Greensboro, North Carolina a small group of black students read the book and decided to take action themselves.
- They started a student sit-in at the restaurant of their local Woolworth's store which had a policy of not serving black people.The students were often physically assaulted, but following the teachings of King they did not hit back.
- In October, 1960, students involved in these sit-ins held a conference and established the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). The organization adopted the Gandhian theory of nonviolent direct action.
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