Paper 1

  • Created by: gracebx1
  • Created on: 29-12-18 19:53
View mindmap
  • PAPER 1 1.1
    • 1.1a
      • The skeleton
        • Clavicle
        • Scapula
        • Vertebrae column
        • Sternum
        • Humerus
        • Ulna
        • Radius
        • Ribs
        • Pelvis
        • Femur
        • Carpals
        • Metacarpals
        • Phalanges
        • Tibia
        • Fibula
        • Tarsal
        • Metatarsal
        • Phalanges
        • Cranium
      • Functions of the skeleton
        • Protection- some bones have a large surface area which means they can protect internal organs from injury or the risk of injury
        • Movement- skeleton is a shaping framework which allow muscles to attach which creates lever systems so muscle can contract and cause movememt
        • Blood cell production- in the bone marrow of long bones cells like re blood cells, white blood cells, platelets are produced
        • Mineral storage- bones can store minerals such as calcium, phosphorus and iron to be later released into the blood stream
        • Posture-
      • Hinge Joint
        • Allows Flexion and extension
        • Only allows movement in one plane
        • Knee- femur, tibia articulate
        • Elbow- humerus, radius, ulna articulate
      • Components of a joint
        • Synovial joint- freely movable joint where two or more bones articulate
        • Ligaments- connect bone to bone, prevent extreme movements, prevent dislocation
        • Tendons- attach muscle to bone
        • Cartilage- prevent the ends of bones rubbing together creating friction, cushion the bones
      • Ball and socket Joint
        • Allows movement in all three planes
        • Allows flexion, extension, adduction, abduction, rotation, circumduction
        • Shoulder- humerus and scapula articulate
        • Hip- pelvis and femur articulate
      • Movement Types
        • Flexion- decreasing the angle at a joint
        • Extension- increasing the angle at a joint
        • Adduction- movement towards the midline of the body
        • Abduction- movement away from the mid-line of the body
        • Rotation- turning/ moving a limb along its long axis
        • Circumduction- movement in a circular motion
    • 1.1b
      • Muscular system
        • Trapezius- allow horizontal abduction at the shoulder
          • E.g. a discus athlete when preparing to release a discus
        • Pectorals- allows horizontal adduction at the shoulder
          • E.g. discus athlete when releasing a discus
        • Abdominals- allows flexion of the vertebrae
          • E.g. a rugby player in a scrum position
        • Triceps- allow extension at the elbow
          • E.g. a netball performing releasing a chest pass
        • Bicep- allows flexion at the elbow
          • E..g a bicep curl
        • Deltiod- allows for flexion, extension, abduction at the shoulder
          • Flexion- E.g. a tennis player as they lift their arm up to hit a shot
          • Extension- E.g. a rounders bowler preparing to bowl the ball
          • Abduction- E.g. the preparation phase of a cartwheel
        • Hamstring- allow flexion at the knee
          • E.g. the preparation phase of kicking a football
        • Quadricep- allow extension at the knee
          • E.g. the execution phase of kicking a football
        • Gastrocnemius- allows for plantar flexion at the ankle
          • E.g. a netball player, who is defending a player who they are holding the ball
        • Gluteals- allows abduction, rotation, extension at the hip
      • Antagonistic muscles
        • Agonist- working muscle, creates movement, shortens to contract
        • Antagonist- counteracts the movement, co-rodinates the movement, lengthen to relax
        • Fixator- stabilize the movement
        • E.g. hamstring and quadricep
    • 1.1.c
      • Lever Systems
        • Components of a lever
          • Lever-  rigid bone
          • Fulcrum- fixed point/ pivot
          • Effort- where the force is applied
          • Load- where the resistance is coming from
        • Third class lever- effort- fulcrum- load
          • E.g. Heading a football
            • Effort- neck muscles contracting
            • Fulcrum- neck joint
            • Load- weight of the cranium
        • Second class lever- fulcrum-load-effort
          • E.g. a long jumper jumping off at the take off board
            • Fulcrum- ankle joint
            • Load- weight of the body and gravity
            • Effort- gastrocnemius contracting
        • Third class lever- fulcrum-effort-load
          • E.g. a bicep curl
            • Fulcrum- elbow joint
            • Effort- bicep muscle flexing
            • Load- weight of the dumbbell
        • Mechanical advantage- the ability to move a large load with a small amount of effort
      • Planes of movement
        • Sagittal  plane- a plane of movement that vertically divides the body into left and right
          • Movement- flexion and extension
          • E.g. running action of the arm and legs in a 100 m sprint
        • Frontal plane- a plan e of movement that vertically divides the body from the front and back
          • Movement- adduction and abduction
          • E.g. the leg and arm action of a cartwheel
        • Transverse axis- a plane of movement that divides the body horizontally into upper and back sections
          • Movement-rotation
          • E.g. the release of a disucs throw
      • Axes of  rotation
        • Longitudinal axis- an axes of rotation that runs through the body vertically
          • E.g. a figure skater performs a spin
        • Frontal axis- an axis of rotation that runs through the body horizontally from the back to the front
          • E.g. a gymnast performs a cartwheel
        • Transverse axis- an axis of rotation that runs horizontally from side to side
          • E.g. a high deep diver performers a somersault
    • 1.1.d
      • Cardiovascular System
        • Circulation
          • Systemic circulation- a transportation of blood between the heart and the rest of the body
          • Pulmonary circulation- a transportation of blood between the lungs and heart
        • Blood vessels
          • Arteries
            • Carry oxygenated blood
            • Away from the heart
            • At a high pressure
            • Thick musuclar walls
            • Has a pulse
          • Veins
            • Carry deoxygenated blood
            • Towards the heart
            • At a low pressure
            • Large lumen
            • Thin walls
            • No pulse
            • Have valves to prevent the backflow of blood
          • Capillaries
            • Thin walls to allow diffusion
        • Pathway of Blood
          • 1) Deoxygenated blood enters the heart via the vena cava going into the right atrium
          • 2) it it pumped through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle
          • 3) It is passes through the semi luna valve into the pulomary artery to go to the lungs to be oxygenated
          • 4) Oxygenated blood returns via thew pulmonary vein into the left atrium.
          • 5) It  is then pumped through the bicuspid valve into the left ventricle.
          • 6) it then passes through the semi luna valve into the aorta to the rest of the body
        • Red blood cells- carry oxygen to the workin gmsucles and take away carbon dioxide fdrom thmem
        • Measurements if the heart
          • Heart rate- numbe rof heart beats per minute
          • Stroke volume- volume of  blood ejected by the left ventricle per contraction
          • Cardiac output- volume of blood ejected by the heart in a minute
      • Respiratory System
        • Pathway of air
          • 1) Air enters the mouth/ nasal cavity warm/ moist
          • 2) It then travels down the trachea
          • 3) It then goes through one of either bronchi
          • 3) Then it travels through the bronchioles to the alveoli
        • Gaseous exchange
          • In the bloodstream there is a high concentration of carbon dioxide
            • in the alveoli there is a low concentration
              • therefore the carbon dioxide diffuses in the alveoli from a high concentration to a low concentration to be expired
          • In the alveoli there is a high concetration of oxygen
            • Whereas in the bloodstream there is a low concentration of oxygen
              • Therefore the oxygen diffuses from an area off high concentration to an area of low concentration to move around the body
        • Mechanics of breathing
          • Inspiration
            • 1) Intercostal muscles contract and move the ribs downwards and outwards
            • 2) The diaphragm contracts flattening out
            • 3) The lung cavity increases and the pressure decrease which causes air to be sucked in
          • Expiration
            • 1) Intercostal muscles relax and move the ribs upwards and inwards
            • 2) The diaphragm relaxes reverting back to its original dome shape
            • 3) The lung cabvity decreases which causes the pressure to increase so air is forced pout
        • Measurements of the lungs
          • Breathing rate- the number of breaths per minute
          • Tidal volume- the volume of air inspired or expired per minute
          • Minute ventilation- volume of air inspired or expired per minute
    • 1.1e
      • Short term Effects of exercise
        • increased muscle temperature
          • Increased speed of chemical reactions
          • Increased energy production
          • increased flexibility and range of motion  joints
          • Decreased risk of injury
        • Increased production of lactic acid
          • Decreased rate of chemical reactions
          • decreased energy production
          • Increased musclur fatigue and pain
        • Increased SV, HR,Q-
          • Increased blood flow, oxygen, nutrient delivery and removal pf waste
        • Re-disruption of blood flow to the muscles
          • a movement of blood flow to the muscles rather than the organs during exercise- vascular shunt
        • Increased f, TV, VE
          • Increased rate and depth pf breathing
          • Increased volume of air for gaseous exchange
        • increased volume of oxygen
          • Increased oxygen availability, energy production, waste product removal
      • Long term Effects of exercise
        • Capillarisation
          • Increased no. of capillaries on alveoli and muscle surfaces
          • Increase gaseous exhcange
        • Increased aerobic capacity
          • Increased ability of breathe in
          • Increased use of oxygen
          • Inbcreases the intensity and duration of performance
        • Increased strength of respiratory muscles
          • Increased force of conractions
          • Increases volume of the chest cavity and lung volume
        • Increase TV and VE
          • Increaased voume of oxygen, diffused into the bloodstream and removal of waste products
        • Hypertrophy of the heart
          • Muslces get bigger and stronger
          • Allows HR to decrease at rest
        • Decreased resting HR  and increasing resting SV
          • More blood ejected per beat so it doesn't need to beat as often
        • Increased speed of recovery
          • SV, Q, BF are higher so waste products are removed quicker allowing faster recovery rates
        • Increased bone density
          • Increasced minera density, calcium l absorption
          • Increase bone strength
          • Decrease risk of injury and protect against osteoporosis
        • Hypertrophy of muscles,and increased muscular strength
          • Incvreased fast twitch muscle fibre size
          • Increased muscle strength, reistance to fatigue
        • Increased muscular endurance and reistance to fatigue
          • Increased sl;ow twitch muscle fibres
          • Increased energy production and train at a higher intensity for longer

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Physical Education resources:

See all Physical Education resources »See all Paper 1 resources »