Organic Chemistry


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  • Organic Chemistry
  • crude oil => fractional distillation (vapourise mixture) different boiling points separate different hydrocarbons=> reformation
  • individual alkene units (monomer) react to form a long chain hydrocarbon polymer
    • alkenes
      • add acidified potassium manganate (KMnO4) => forms diol (reaction purple to colourless)
        • alcohol
          • combustion
            • complete (sufficient oxygen)
              • produces CO2+H2O
            • incomplete  (insufficient  oxygen)
              • produces CO + H20
            • alkenes
              • add acidified potassium manganate (KMnO4) => forms diol (reaction purple to colourless)
                • alcohol
                  • combustion
                    • complete (sufficient oxygen)
                      • produces CO2+H2O
                    • incomplete  (insufficient  oxygen)
                      • produces CO + H20
                  • + halogen = R-ONa + H2
                  • tertiary. need.HX primary and secondary react with PX3 or PX5
                    • Halogenoalkane
              • (alkene to alkane) Hydrogen + nickel catalyst
                • alkanes
                  • (alkane to alkene) CRACKING + zeolite catalyst
                    • mechanism : free radical substitution
                      • initiation: molecule (eg. Cl2) to radical
                        • Propagation: molecule + radical=> molecule + radical
            • + halogen = R-ONa + H2
            • tertiary. need.HX primary and secondary react with PX3 or PX5
              • Halogenoalkane
        • (alkene to alkane) Hydrogen + nickel catalyst
          • alkanes
            • (alkane to alkene) CRACKING + zeolite catalyst
              • mechanism : free radical substitution
                • initiation: molecule (eg. Cl2) to radical
                  • Propagation: molecule + radical=> molecule + radical
      • secondary/ tertiary - oxidation H+/CrO7 (2-)
        • carbonyl
          • alderhyde + h/ Cro7 ()2-
            • Carboxylic acid
              • primary alcohol (Reflux) + H+/CrO7 (2- ion)

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