Organic Chemistry

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  • Created by: Shannon
  • Created on: 05-03-14 18:21
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  • Organic chemistry
    • Hazards and risks
      • Hazard: A substance's potential to cause harm
        • Highlighted in a risk assessment
          • Risk: The probability that a substance will cause harm and the consequences of it doing so
            • Precautions should be made to reduce risks
              • Work on a smaller scale
              • Using alternative techniques
              • Using less hazardous chemicals
      • Risk: The probability that a substance will cause harm and the consequences of it doing so
        • Precautions should be made to reduce risks
          • Work on a smaller scale
          • Using alternative techniques
          • Using less hazardous chemicals
    • Alkanes
      • General formula
        • CnH2n+2
      • Isomers
        • Different compounts that have the same molecular formular, but atoms are arranged differently in space
        • Structural isomers
          • Compounds have different functional groups or are connected to the carbon chain differently
      • Alkanes as fuels
        • Obtained from crude oil
          • Fractional distillation
          • Cracking
          • Reformation
      • Reactions
        • Free radical mechanism
          • Initiation
            • Homolytic fission of covalent bond - creation of 2 free radicals
          • Propagation
            • 1st step: free radical reacts with alkane
            • 2nd step: free radical reacts with Cl2 gas - forming a chloroalkane and a free radical
          • Termination
            • 2 free radicals react to form a covalent bond
      • Saturated hydrocarbons
        • Single bonds only
    • Alkenes
      • General formula
        • CnH2n
      • Geometric isomerism
        • Exist because there is no free rotation around the double bond
        • Naming
          • cis/trans
            • cis = same
            • trans = opposite
          • E/Z
            • E = opposite
            • Z = same
      • Reactions
        • Electrophilic addition
          • The double bond is electron rich
            • Electrophiles attracted to these areas
          • Addition to asymmetric alkenes
            • E.g Propene + HBr
              • Secondary carbocation more stable as the +ve charge is spread between 3 carbons
        • Polymerisation
          • Joining of alkene monomers to form a polymer
      • Unsaturated hydrocarbon
        • Contains a C=C bond
      • Test
        • Bromine water

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