Organic Chemistry

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  • Created by: bambi
  • Created on: 29-05-13 15:42
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  • Organic Chemistry
    • nucleoplilic substiution
      • Involves a nucleoplile which has an electron pair donar
      • The halopgens are more elexctronegative than carbon C+_Br-so the carbon halogen bond is polar
      • The  C+ does not have any electrons which means it can be attracted by a nucleoplile
      • oH- , cn- and nH3- all have nucleopliles which react with haloalkanes
      • Nucleoplile donates to C+ and bonds to it the electron pair go to the halogen and breaks off so it now has a spare pair of electrons
      • However with nucleoplilic addition with NH3 there is more than one step after the Nh3 has joined onto the halalkane the Nh3 becomes electron dificent so another nh3 comes takes a hydrogen and donates its spare pair of electrons creating a haloalkane connected to NH2 , Nh4 and the halide with a spare pair of electrons
      • and then this can happen again with the br-
    • Free radical substitution
      • Initiation
        • The chlorine is split by energy from ultraviolet radiation
      • 2nd propogation
        • The Nh3 attacks a cl2 forming Nh3cl + a cl free radical
      • 1st propagation
        • 2 free radicals created from the split of chlorine
        • the cl attaches to Nh4 forming a free radical of ch3 and Hcl
      • Termination
        • Two free radicals join together to for a stable molecule and stop the chain reaction you can either get a ch3 and cl free radical to form Ch3cl or two ch3 to form ch3ch3 or rarely two chlorine to form cl2
    • Chlorination Ozon
      • The formation of ozon
        • O2 is converted to 2 ) free radicals which react with 02 to form 03
      • The stability of cfcs means that they remain intact until they reach the upper atmosphere. There  they absorb ultraviolet which then creates chlorine free radicals
      • Formation of 02 from 03 is 203 _302
      • other eqautions are cl2- +02= Clo free radical + o2
      • Clo+ o3 = Cl free radical +202
    • Electroplilic addition
      • An electroplile is attracted to an electron rich double bond
      • One side of the electropile is electro positive the other is electro negative
      • Electrons from the doulble bond are attracted to the positive side of the nucleoplile . the electons go to postive atom
      • However as the negative side of the electroplile is more electro negative the electrons travel to it causing the ion to break off . The postive ion has already bonded to the most stable carbon
      • as the double bond has been broken a carbocation has formed on the other carbon which had a double bond the ion the new pair of 2 free electrons is is attracted to this atom and these two bond together onto the haloalkene
    • elimination
      • The difference between elimiation and nucleoplilic attition is that in elimination the molecule formed has a double bond
      • In oh  elimination the oh goes to the hydrogen the arrow goes to the middle carbon bond than to the Br-
      • The Br breaks off and the bond that was connected to the Br is now part of the double bond
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