Nuclear arms race

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  • Created by: Becky
  • Created on: 22-05-15 02:45
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  • Nuclear Arms Race 1949-1963
    • 1 // Russia acquires atomic bombs: cold war led to arms race, driven by nuclear technology, only part of wider ideological competition to demonstrate 'superiority' of US capitalism or Soviet communism.
    • 3 // delivering the bomb by plane: Initiall super powers developed aircraft to carry bombs to targets - From 1953 40% of US defence funds allocated to airforce, by 1955 US owned B52 Stratofortress - 1st bomber with intercontinental range. Under control of General Curtis 'Bombs away' LeMay, Strategic Air Command (SAC) became USA's main nuclear strike force with bombers placed on 24hr alert. USSR could't compete with SAC but in 1856 responded with TU20 Bear - copied from B52 design. But, drawbacks of aircraft delivery was that bombers were slow and could be shot down & USSR had no access to air bases near US territory
    • 4 // development of rocket technology: From early 1950's both superpowers were also developing rocket based nuclear delivery systems. May 1957 SU successfully tested world's first intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) , capable of carrying a thermonuclear warhead - 5months later, launched Sputnik II into orbit with dog, Laika as it's passenger. By 1959, SU strategic Rocket Force was a new section of the Soviet military. The USSR's lead  in rocket technology was confirmed in April 1961 when Yuri Gagarin became 1st man in space in Vostok I.
    • 5 // The 'missile gap' 1957-61: USSR's success with ICBM's, Sputnik and Vostok I led to US fears that Soviets had more advanced military technology. 'missile gap' view reinforced by 1) Findings of CIA Gaither Report of November 1857 and 2) failure of first US Vanguard satellite launch. BUT SU achievements were less impressive than they seemed - Kh devoted a lot of attention to impressive demonstrations of Soviet power E.G 'Tsar Bomba' but even though SU first to achieve, USA was never far behind. - 1) USA had more Nuclear weapons (NW) than SU & launched own satellite 'Explorer' (1958), USA's ICBM 'Minuteman was far superior to SU missiles.2) Government intelligence gathered by U-2 spy places and in 1960-61 CIA satellite 'discoverer'  revealed USSR only had a few bombers & operational missiles 3) USA deployed intermediate range ballistic missiles (IRBM's) in GR, Italy and Turkey. 4) 1958 Ike increased funding for science education & research to maintain USA's lead, July 1960, USA deployed 'Polaris' world's first submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM)- more advanced than soviet weapons.
    • 6 // balance of terror: Churchill remarked that nuclear weapons had created a 'balance of terror. early 1960, balance of terror existed between superpowers - arms race reached point of of Mutually assured Destruction (MAD). Ths danger of nuclear war prevented the USA and USSR from engaging in direct conflict from 1949-1963 - this forced them to cooperate on key points (such as cuban missile crisis.
    • 7 // Nuclear deterrence and limited war: SU's acquisition of the atomic bomb &determination to match US developments made nuclear deterrence a strategic reality for both. Deterrence linked to concept of limited war, first emerged during the korean war (1950-53). To avoid dangers of superpower nuclear escalation in korea, 1) stalin didn't intervene directly in war 2) Truman refused to use nuclear weapons against china 3) US restricted combat zone to korea.
    • 8 // massive retaliation: US confidence about nuclear superiority (when it held a 10-1 advantage over SU) caused the Ike administration to introduce the eisenhower doctrine of mass retaliation (1954) This strategy involved the use of brinkmanship to force SU to back down. Partly designed to reduce conventional arms spending. Similar policies adopted by USSR (1955) and GB (1957). Retaliation was unrealistic, USA would only use nuclear weapons in an emergency.
    • 9 // Flexible response and counterface: Kennedy and McNamara rejected massive retaliation as being too rigid. Instead favoured a more flexible response  strategy - considered the poss of a limited war. As part of this McNamara developed 'second strike' capability based on bombers, ICBM's and submarines. = USA could attack back after suffering a nuclear attack from USSR. In 1962, also introduced counterface strategy to SU installations rather than cities as main target for future attacks. USSR didn't base their plans on flexible response but on an all out nuclear attack. FR was expensive & raised question on how nuclear war could be managed, especially with advent of October 1962 crisis - Ken threatened threatened 'a full retaliatory response upon the SU  if any western nation was hit by cuban missiles. third problem is US missiles inability to target soviet nuclear sites accurately
    • 10 // Mutual assured destruction (MAD): A further shift in American nuclear strategy, caused by Weakening US nuclear superiority compared with early 1950's and failings of flexible response. 1963 - McNamara began to emphasise nuclear deterrence and talk of SU's 'assured destruction' in any conflict. By mid-late 1960's when SU had achieved basic nuclear parity with USA, the superpowers had reached the position of mutual detterence, Soviets never used this term but it was underpinned in their strategy.
    • 11 // Stabilising and destabilising effects of cold war: STABILISING = 1, deterrent effect of nuclear weapons prevented confrontation 2, presence of nuclear weapons ensured respect for respective spheres of influence and no interference (e.g Hungary 1956) 3, Superpowers had to cooperate to regulate removal of nuclear missiles from Cuba and Turkey (1962-63) 4, leaders were aware of living in nuclear age and acting responsibly e.g Khrushchev withdrew offer from Zedong of help in nuclear programme. DESTABILISING = 1, Soviet acquisition of atomic bomb (1949)caused a spiralling arms race. superpowers competed to produce hydrogen bombs (1952) ICBM's (1957) and SLBM's (1960). 2, Culture of secrecy surrounding development of nuclear weapons let to feat of nuclear superiority on both sides - impact of Guither report4, cost of nuclear weapons imposed financial stress on both sides. - destabilising effect in 2 ways !- Khrushchev compensated for the USSR's relative weakness by adopting antagonistic approach to negotiations B Decision to station SU NW's in Cuba was because short-range missiles in Cuba was cheaper than long range ones in Russia.5, NW's didn't stop other forms of superpower competition for influence - 1950's &early 1960's Soviet economic & military aid  to developing countries & US support for anti-communist regimes in S.Vietnam,S.Korea and Taiwan
    • 12 // causes of Cuban missile crisis: Cuba was under US influence since the end of Spanish rule in 1898 - USA owned much of Cuban economy (such as industry, railways, telephone systems and electricity and sugar production. From 1933, Cuba was ruled by Batista - ruthless military dictator. encouraged economic involvement of USA in return for US support for his corrupt and unpopular regime. Jan 1959 he was overthrown by revolutionaries led by Castro. batista fled into exile.
    • 13 //  Growing Cuban tension 1959-61: At first he was a nationalist - no programme to nationalise Cuba but relations with the USA deteriorated and he became dependent on SU thus - increased US-Cuban tensions. = 1, Castro's meeting in NY with Nixon April 1939 didn't go well - Nixon concluded that Castro was a commie. 2, Castro's imprisonment and execution of Batista's supporters was condemned in USA 3, Batista's supporters fled to USA where they campaigned for US-backed invasion of Cuba - Hardened Castro's attitude 4, Castro wanted Cuba to be independent of US influence so distributed land to peasants who had previously been exploited by Batista and US business interests. 5, US-owned oil companies in cuba refused to refine cheaper soviet oil - C's response was too nationalise the refineries (USA refused Cuba's compensation offer) 6, Feb 1960, trade deal with SU to nationalise US interests in Cuba taht were worth over $1bn 7, July 1960, USA imposed economic blockade on Cuba, refusing to buy it's sugar (island's chief export) SU bought the crop and sent C petrol after USA refused to ship supplies. 8, Early 1961, Castro fully embraced communism. THAT ESCALATED QUICKLY EH!?
    • 14 // Bay of pigs invasion April 1961: Kennedy authorised a CIA backed invasion of Cuba with aim of sparking a popular revolt on the island to overthrow Castro. About 1400 lightly armed anti-Castro Cuban exiles landed iat the Bay of Pigs but were quickly overwhelmed by cuban army and air force - Deep humiliation for kennedy - couldn't conceal US involvement - Castro reacted by entering into a defencive agreement with SU - brought SU weapons and military advisors to Cuba by early 1962, Khrushchev had supplied island with MiG jets and SAM's
    • 15 // Operation Mongoose October 1961: 6months after bay of pigs fiasco, CIA with Ken's full backing launched op.Mon. between Jan and July 1962 about 60000 acts of sabotage from murder to arson were carried out as part of operation. USA held large-scale military exercises in Caribbean to increase pressure in Cuba and demonstrate american might - Castro and Khrushchev expected USA to invade.
    • 16 // Soviet nuclear weapons on Cuba 1962: Early sep, USA secretly started to install 24 SS-4 medium range ballistic missile launchers and 16 longer range SS-5 missile launchers (each launcher holding 2 missiles, both with a 1 megaton nuclear warhead) in Cuba. SU sent 42 jet bombers, 42 jet fighters, 24 advanced SAM's 4 elite army regiments, 2 tank battalions and over 40000 troops and other personnel. K described this military build up as 'throwing a hedgehog st Uncle Sam's underpants' K's motives were probably 2, To defend Cuba from an expected US invasion, 2, to bargain for removal of US nuclear missiles from turkey and italy, to further humiliate Ken after Bay of pigs failure (1961, April) 5, achieve nuclear parity with USA by making US cities more vulnerable to attack
    • 17 // Cuban missile crisis 1962 what influenced the USA's actions during the cuban missile crisis?: 14 october, US U-2 spy plane photographed  SU nuclear missile sites near San Cristobal in Western Cuba 90 miles from Florida, could hit most of USA's large cities and destroy all SAC bases 2, A SU Nuc attack from Cuba would reduce USA's warning time from 30mins to only 3mins, US govt feared this would increase SU temptation to launch strike. 3, SU missiles in Cuba posed threat to US economic interests - US control of Panama Canal, central for Caribbean-Pacific trade. 4, SU involvement in Cuba broke informal agreements post-1945 about respecting 'spheres of influence' 5, Ken was under home pressure to strengthen power as US pres. after failures such as lacklustre performance against Khrushchev at June 1961 Vienna summit, inability to prevent construction of Berlin wall and failure in Bay of Pigs fiasco. 6, USA concerned Cuba provided 'nuclear shield' by which SU could freely expand influence across south and central america.
    • 18 // results of the cuban missile crisis on leaders: KENNEDY = 1, gave him a much-needed foreign policy success which strengthened his presidency To avoid humiliating the Soviets, ordered 'no boasting, no gloating not even a claim of victory'. 2, could claim to have removed SU nuclear threat from USA's 'backyard' 3, 10 days after crisis, Ken reaped domestic rewards - Democrats won by a landslide in congressional elections - biggest majority in 20 years 4, pledged not to remove C, thus accepting communist cuba 5, secretly agreed with SU to remove US missiles from Turkey - this not revealed to US public until 1968
      • 18, cont // KHRUSHCHEV = 1, could claim credit for safeguarding Castro's socialist revolution by obtaining US pledge not to invade Cuba, called this a 'spectacular success' achieved 'without firing a single shot' 2, Could argue SU action in Cuba had removed US Jupiter missiles in Turkey (removed in 1963 'obsolete') 3, Khrushchev had chosen peace over brinkmanship but the SU descent in 1962 cant be ignored 4, SU military never forgave Khrushchev - regarding the Cuban venture as ending in humiliating failure - a factor in his removal from office in 1964.  CASTRO = 1, furious for removal of SU missiles as he had not been told, called K names and Cuban forces surrounded SU bases for 4 days 2, Angry because he expected SU to insist on removal of US military base in Guantanamo Bay 3, crisis reinforced his dependence on SU - provided ec. aid to Cuba
    • 19 // results of cuban missile crisis in easing tensions in 1963: Cuban missile crisis brought superpowers to brink of nuclear war. In aftermath both saw that confidence-building measures were needed to sooth cold war tensions in crisis situations & limit the liklihood of nuclear war. Within 1 year USA & SU signed 2 important initiatives which would help acieve this
    • 20 // 1st initiative the hotline agreement June 1963: October 1962 crisis shown the necessity for rapid communication between superpowers - result was setting up a 'hot-line' telegraph link between whitehouse and Kremlin so they could have immediate contact to hold discussions. aim was to ensure misjudgements and misunderstandings could be resolved  before a serious crisis could develop
    • 21 // Nuclear test ban treaty August 1963: by october 1958 both powers volantarily stopped nuclear tests which lasted for almost 3 years. A more formal agreement could not be formed during this time as SU rejected USA demands for rigorous  'on-site' inspections of underground nuclear tests. August 1961 SU resumed atmospheric tests and the USA followed with a new round of underground and atmospheric nuclear detonations. Sobering effect impact of Cuban missile crisis led to two powers & Britain to sign the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty 1963 - banned tests in the atmosphere,  under water or in space. Underground testing was still permitted.
    • 22 // The beginning of detente
    • 2 // beginning of nuclear arms race January 1950: Truman announced the USA would build a 'super' bomb (hydrogen bomb)  with destructive power that was 3-5 times bigger than nuclear bombs. Decision was accelerated by 1) USSR ending USA nuclear monopoly 3 years before the predicted 2) Berlin Blockade (1948-1949) - seen that Communist expansion could be expanded 3) establishment of PRC 1949 (communist takeover of world's most populous country) 4) Discovery of a Soviet nuclear spy ring 5) assumption that the USSR would build such a weapon anyway Successful testing of US hydrogen bomb code-named Ivy Mike on a Pacific island in Nov 1962 led to thermonuclear arms race.

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