Nicholas II 1894-1917

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  • Nicholas II
    • opposition
      • increased protests from students over the regime
        • 1901 Cossacks killed 13 students and 1500 were imprisoned
      • 'years of the red cockerel' - peasants burnt barns and grain and even attacked landlords.
        • this resulted in 'Stolypin's neckties' were peasants were beaten, shot or exiled in their thousands.
      • number of industrial strikes increased to 90000 in 1904
        • chief of the Okhrana organised his own police run unions so it provided official channels but in 1903 there was a general strike
        • Father Gregorii Gapon organised assembly of St Petersburg factory workers in 1904 and had 8000 members
    • Russo-Japanese war
      • fighting over 6000 miles away with inadequate weapons and training
      • 1904 Plehve was assassinated and cries were made for a Duma
      • surrendered Port Arthur
    • 1905 revolution
      • Bloody Sunday 9tth of January
        • Fathere Gapon led a peaceful march around 150000 workers to the winter palace
        • 12000 troops fired at them and more than 150 dead and more wounded
        • influenced by strikes at the Putilov strikes on 3rd
      • assassination of grand duke Sergei Aleksandrovich
      • Zemstva liberals meet in Moscow
        • rejected Bulygin's draft proposal
      • April All-Russian union of railways set up and many more set up
        • 8/9th 'union of unions set up
      • Mutiny on the Potemkin  14th June- killed 7 officers and put their bodies on the steps, troops fired at townsfolk and sailors 2000 killed and 3000 wounded
      • finished 19th December
    • October manifesto
      • grant civic freedom
      • establish a state duma and give power to approve laws
      • strikes still continued and therer were Jewish pogroms
    • Dumas
      • 2 chambers
        • lower chamber- state duma indirect voting and deputies had 5 years
        • upper chamber- state council half elected by zemstva half elected by Tsar
      • fundamental laws 23rd April 1906
        • tsar had right to veto and rule by decree in emergencies could appoint and dismiss and dissolve duma if wishs
        • command by land and sea, declare and get peace, control of foreign relations, military and household expenditure and overturn verdicts and control the church
      • political groups
        • SD 1898
          • split in 1903 into  Bolsheviks and Mensheviks
        • SR 1901
        • Labour group trudoviks
        • Constitutional democrats  kadets
        • Octobrists union of 17 October
        • progessives
        • rightists
        • nationalists
      • the duma of national hopes May-July 1906 dominated by mensheviks Srs and rightists it was heavily critical of the Tsar 'address to the throne'
      • the duma of national angry feburary-june 1907 dominated by all but Bolsheviks and stolypin got rid of it because so left wing and a plot to kill the tsar
      • the duma of lords and lackneys November 1907-june 1912 Bolsheviks, kadets and trudoviks and was suspended twice but was most submissive
      • the fourth duma November 1912-1917 docile and lasted so long because it was ignored the whole time - made up of the same parties
    • economic developments 1908 -1914
      • state revenue doubled and the number of banks rose from 1146 - 2393
      • number of factories increased 22600-224900 and so did the number of workers by 0.4 million
      • second in the world for oil production and 4th for coal and steel
      • second largest railway of 62200km
      • Russia was still behind the rest of Europe in terms of national income growth and foreign trade
    • agriculture - stolypin's land reforms
      • state and crown banks made available to peasants and migration to  Siberia increased
      • peasant land banks established and had right to leave communes
      • 1907 redemption payments abolished
    • social
      • workers had poor living conditions and  often died of disease cholera 1908-09
      • higher education level 55% of children in education
      • lena goldfield massacre 1912  500 killed for better wages and conditions
      • middle class developed and nobles and peasants suffered
      • Chekhov, Tolstoy,dostoevsky
    • 1914 WW1
      • high national solidarity until defeat at Battle of Tannenburg 300000 died
      • Alexandria was in control of Petrograd and there were rumours she was sabotaging the war effort along with Rasputin
      • Russia's economy wasn't ready and the military was not up to soldiers and had to take weapons of fallen soldiers
      • lots of food shortages and inflation rates rose rapidly
      • 14th feb 100000 from 58 factories went on strike and bread rationing created long queues and police were attacked
      • 24th feb 200000 workers went on strike next day 250000 on the 27th a mutiny in the police started
      • Petrograd soviet was set up and tsar resigned on the 1st of march and was put in house arrest with his ministers

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