ALEXANDER II (up to 1881) known for liberal reform
russia:- very large, hard to govern. backward in comparison to other european powers. autocratic, no constitution, majority of population were illiterate - peasants.
*saw the need to industrialize and modernise-military and judicial reform.
*Emancipation of the serfs - 1861 peasants had no obligations to nobles / peasants were given 50% of the agric. land / the nobles were compensated through taxes (redemption payments) for the loss of land / the commune (Mir) became a basis for tax collection & distribution of land
Zemstvo - elected councils
ASSASSINATED BY PEOPLES WILL 1st march 1881 same day he allowed russias first constitution
ALEXANDER III - 1881-1894
Conservative reaction to his fathers assassination ->> NEW CONSERVATISM
return to 'orthodoxy and autocracy' censorship of press
zemstvo power reduced
secret police raised
NICHOLAS II - 1894-1917
no leniance whatsoever concerning any political change away from complete and total autocracy.
little experience of gov, and no real interest in politics.
Alexandra and Rasputin
wasn't as firm as his father regarding opposition against him;; ->>
- The Liberal Movement : a middle class party
- The Social Revolutionary Party: (from Land and Liberty Party) prepared to use violence but rather utopian
- The Social Democratic Party: Mensheviks (believed in a mass movement of workers gradually progressing towards a socialist state) and Bolsheviks (believed in revolution by a party of elite leading the workers)
RUSSO JAPENESE WAR - 1904/5 BLOODY SUNDAY! 22/01/05 october manifesto=freedom of speech and duma.
KULAKS -wanted to create a new class of capitalist peasants. encourages them to both buy land and farm with modern methods ie not strip farming
introduced low interest loans so peasants could buy land.
stolypins necktie - was vigilant against opposition, 1444 killed in 1907.
duma - new electoral vote - ended up full of octobrists, if they didnt fully agree with his policies he would rely on decrees.