Russia 1871-1914

Russia autocracy and democracy revision cards

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Nicholas I -> 1825-1855

AUTOCRACY
Firm believer in autocracy
Controlled advisors
Secret police 1826
Tight censorship
Controlled education 1830+
Aggressive foreign policy -> Persia War 1828, Turkish War 1853, and Crimean War 1855

REFORM
Pragmatic, bypassed bureaucracy
Financial reforms, stabilised currency
Banned serf auctioning 1833
Railway spread 700km by 1854

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Alexander II -> 1855-1881

AUTOCRACY
Post 1866 more repression due to assassination attempts and the increase of revolutionary movements, along with Polish revolts
Zemstva powers reduced
Secret police
Strict press censorship
No juries

REFORM
Emancipation 1861
1864 Zemstva
1870 town councils
Fairer legal reforms
State bank

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Alexander III -> 1881-1894

AUTOCRACY
Safeguard system
1889 Land Captains
Russification
Emergency powers
Autocracy, Orthodoxy and Nationailty

REFORM
1883-85 cheap loans for peasants to buy land
Ended poll tax
Cautious and peaceful foreign policy

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Nicholas II -> 1894-1917

AUTOCRACY
Continued safeguard system and Russification
1906 spring constitution - weak Duma
1907 Electoral law change - the Duma had to approve electoral changes

REFORM
1903 Trans-Siberian railway, 9600m long
1905 October Manifesto
Duma legislative powers
Story pins reforms for peasants

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