Reflex arc & Neurons & nervous conditions


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  • Reflex arc & Neurons &nervous conditions
    • Principals of coordination
      • Nervous system
        • use nerve cells to pass electrical impulses
        • stimulate target cells by secreting NEUROTRAN-SMITTERS on them
          • = rapid communication between specific part of organism
        • response- short lived & restricted to a localised region on  body
        • e.g reflex arc
          • Importance
            • 1.involuntary-brain can carry out + complex responses
              • some impulses still sent to brain - to inform-> override the reflex if necessary
            • 2.protect body from harm
            • 3.fast-neuron pathway short d.t few synapse
            • 4.rapid d.t absence of decision making
        • effect- usually temporary & reversible
      • Hormonal sytem
        • hormones transported to blood plasma to their target cells
          • target cells have specific receptors.  change in hormone concentration = stimulation
            • = slower, less specific form of communication between parts of organism
        • long-lasting response & widespread
        • e.g control of blood glucose conc
        • effect- permanent & irreversible
    • 3 neurons
      • Relay/Intermediate
        • transmit impulses between neurons
        • lots of short processes
      • Motor
        • transmit impulses from rely to effector
        • long axons and + short dentries
      • Sensory
        • transmit nerve cells from receptor to relay or motor
        • 1 dendron (v.long) - carries impulse to cell body
        • 1 axon - carry impulse away from cell body
    • Sequence
      • Stimulus
        • Receptor
          • Sensory n
            • Relay n
              • Motor n
                • Effector
                  • Response
    • Nervous organisation
      • Peripheral Nervous System - (made up of pairs of nerves from brain or spinal cord)
        • Sensory n system (receptor to CNS)
        • Motor n system (CNS to effector)
          • Automatic nervous system (carry nerve impulses to glands, smooth muscles & cardiac muscles)- SUBCONSCIOUS
          • Voluntary nervous system (carry nerve impulses to body muscles)- CONSCIOUS
      • CNS
        • Brain
        • Spinal chord

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