nazi economy

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  • Nazi Economy
    • Economy
      • Problems when Hitler became chancellor
        • International debt
        • Agricultural stagnation
        • Industrial unemployment
      • Main phases of Nazi economy
        • The New Plan 1934-6
        • The Four Year Plan 1936-9
        • War economy 1939-45 (Blitzkreig 39-40)
      • Nazi economic aims
        • prepared for war (from 1937 - within 4 years)
        • economic autarky
        • full employment
    • Schact's New Plan 1934-6
      • Recovery from Great Depression under Schact
        • (-) groups had been removed from unemployment register e.g women, men conscripted into Reich Labour service (22mil) and army (over 1mil by 1935-40)
          • Schact good at disguising weaknesses within economy, but there were still flaws - balance of trade problem + full employment faked
      • imports limited - materials imported carefully controlled
      • world food prices been low for decades - farmers couldn't compete - farmers' income increased
      • public spending up 70% - wide range of industries, autobahns
      • unemployment decreased lots - 6mil people were on unemployment register - by 1934 3.8mil
      • Trade Agreements - made w/ individual countries (e.g Hungary exchanged butter, veg oil etc) to supply raw materials in return for German goods
      • Why was it successful - plan solved economic crisis and allowed Hitler to start to rearm, further helped by world economic improvement
        • Although successful by 1935, Hitler wanted to prepare for war - Schacht lost his power to Goering
          • Schacht argued that arms expenditure should be reduced + production of industrial goods
    • Goering's Four Year Plan 1936-9
      • Guns or Butter under Goering - focused on war + autarky
        • Industrial prod went up + took 1.3 mil off unemployment register - spent 46bil marks on weapons + equip - created jobs
          • army grew from 1.4mil 1939
      • Economy overheated - forced to go to war early - only way to solve economic crisis
        • Schacht argued not a LT solution - by 1939 Germany still depended on foreign imports for 1/3 of its raw materials
          • army had taken priority over farmers - should have focused on agriculture?
      • pre-war production never reached capacity levels
      • Goering focused on war prep - some improvement but wasn't successful. Forced to go to war early - still balance of trade issues (no autarky) and nationalised industries failing


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