Monoclonal Antibodies - Treating Diseases

  • Created by: India.02
  • Created on: 06-05-19 17:58
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  • Monoclonal Antibodies - Treating Disease
    • To Find Substances
      • Monoclonal antibodies can be used to bind to hormones and other chemicals in blood to measure their levels
      • Can also be used to test blood samples in laboratories for certain pathogens
      • They can locate some specific molecules on a cell or in a tissue
        • 1. Monoclonal antibodies are made that will bind to the specific molecules
        • 2. Antibodies are then bound to a fluorescent dye
        • 3. If molecules are present in the sample, the monoclonal antibodies will attach to them - can be detected using the dye
    • Problems
      • Side effects - fever, vomiting and low blood pressure - Scientists believed that they wouldn't cause side effects because of their specific function
      • Not as widely used because of the side effects
    • Advantages
      • Cancer Treatment - other treatments can impact normal body cells as well as killing the cancer cells - MA only target specific cells
      • Side effects of antibody-based drug are lower than for standard chemo-therapy or radiotherapy
    • Treat Diseases
      • Monoclonal antibodies can be made to bind to tumour markers
        • 1. An anti-cancer drug can be attached to the MA - might be a radioactive substance, a toxic drug or a chemical that stops cancer cells growing and dividing
        • 2. Antibodies are given to a patient through a drip
        • 3. Antibodies target specific cells because they only bind to the tumour markers
        • 4. Drug kills cancer cells but doesn't kill normal cells near the tumour
      • Cancer cells have antigens that aren't found on normal body cells - tumour markers
      • Different cells have different antigens on their surface - MA can be made to bind to specific cells

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