Monoclonal Anitbodies. (4.3.2)

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  • Monoclonal Antibodies. (4.3.2)
    • Producing Monoclonal antibodies. (4.3.2.1)
      • Antibodies produced are specific to one binding site on one protein antigen and so are able to target a specific chemical or specific cells in the body.
      • Specific antibodies are produced by stimulating mouse lymphocytes
      • The lymphocytes are combined with a kind of tumour cell to make a cell called a hybridoma cell and that this hybridoma cell can both divide and make the antibody.
      • Monoclonal antibodies are formed from a single clone of cells.
      • Single hybridoma cells can be cloned to produce many identical cells that all produce the same antibody and that a large amount of the antibody can be collected and purified.
      • Malignant tumour cells are cancers. They invade neighbouring tissues and spread to different parts of the body (via the bloodstream) where they form secondary tumours
    • Uses of monoclonal antibodies     (4.3.2.2)
      • Discuss the importance of monoclonal antibodies and evaluate the advantages  and disadvantages associated with their use.
      • Describe some ways in which monoclonal antibodies can be used, including:
        • treating diseases such as cancer
        • Measuring the levels of hormones and other chemicals in blood.
        • Pregnancy tests.
        • To detect pathogens.
        • Locating or identifying specific molecules in a cell or tissue by binding to them with a fluorescent dye.

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