Chemistry: Medicine and Drugs

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  • Medicines and Drugs
    • Antacids
      • Combat dyspepsia (indigestion caused by excess acid)
      • Neutralise stomach acid
        • relives pain
        • allows mending of protective mucus layer and stomach lining
        • prevents inflammation
      • magnesium trisilicate physically absorbs acids (gather on surface in a condensed layer)
      • Antacids + Alginates
        • form protective neutralizing coating
        • prevent heartburn
      • Antacids + Anti-foaming agents
        • eg. dimethicone
        • prevent flatulence
    • Analgesics
      • Relieve pain
      • Mild analgesics
        • Aspirin
          • Prevents prostaglandin synthase
          • Hydrolysed to salicylic acid + ethanoate ions
            • In small intestine only (less acidic)
            • salicylic acid (phenolic group) + ethanoic acid -> ester aspirin
            • salicylic acid (carboxylic group) + methanol -> methyl salicylate
              • characteristic smell
              • poisonous if taken internally
              • liniment (remove inflammation causing muscle pain)
          • Anti-inflammatory
          • Anti-clotting agent
            • Prevents strokes
            • Can cause bleeding of stomach
          • Allergies: bronchial asthma
          • Reye's disease in children
          • Fatal if safe dose exceeded (salicylic acid leads to acidosis)
        • Paracetamol
          • less problematic side effects than aspirin
          • overdose: brain, liver and kidney damage
        • Intercept pain stimulus at source of injury
      • Strong analgesics
        • Temporarily interact with receptor sites in brain and block pain signals
        • Opiates
          • Morphine
          • Codeine
          • Heroin formed from condensation of morphine and ethanoic anhydride
    • Depressants
      • Depress central nervous system
      • Slow down body functions
        • Interfere with transmission of nerve impulses in neurons
      • Alcohol breathalyser: acidified potassium dichromate (VI) crystals go from orange to green
      • Alcohol fuel cell: ethanol oxidised to produce electricity
      • Infrared intoximeters: C-H in ethanol absorbs infrared radiation of certain wavelength
        • 1. Breath into chamber
        • 2. Infrared radiation passes through 'chopper' (beams pass through sample & empty chamber alternately)
        • 3. Intensities of beams compared
      • Aspirin + alcohol
        • Increased risk of stomach bleeding (alcohol transports aspirin through lining of stomach)
    • Anti-depressants
      • reduce anxiety
      • help with insomnia
      • benzodiazepines (minor tranquilizer)
      • fluoxetine (Prozac) selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor
        • makes serotonin more available (mood affecting)
    • Stimulants
      • Increase state of mental alertness
      • Adrenaline
    • Amphetamines
      • Sympathomimetric drug (mimic effect of stimulation on sympathetic nervous system)
        • Nictotine
      • Treat narcolepsy, slimming pills, anti-depressants
      • long term effects: weight loss, constipation, emotional instability




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