Media Effects

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    • Methodological Problems
      • media text is polysemic
      • hard to determine whether the media is effecting a person or other factors such as peer groups
      • the spread means more choice of media products it is hard to determine what will have an impact
      • impossible to investigate what people would be like without any influence from the media
    • The Hypodermic Syringe Model
      • suggests the media as a hypodermic syringe injecting messages into audiences' brains
        • sees audiences as assively accepting media messages and replicating them
      • AO2- James Bulger case
      • FEMINISM
        • Morgan(1980)-suggested there is a causal link between *********** and real life sexual violence but there may be other factors
        • Dworkin(1990)
        • Desemsitisation
          • Elizabeth Newman-as a result of the James Bulger case has since been investigating the effects of violent TV on young people
            • she suggested such exposure creates a drip drip effect amongst young people-becomes desensitised
      • what has been put in place to stop violent media on having an effect?
      • Evaluation
        • assumes the entire audience is passive and homogenous and will react the same way to media content
    • The Two Step Flow Model
      • Katz and Lazarsfeld(1955)
      • the media does not have have a direct impact on individuals it has to go through a second stage.
        • there are millions of media products produced each week but only a limited amount have an impact on us
          • for media to have an impact on opinion leader needs to influence us to watch and have an opinion on
      • Characteristics of an opinion leader
        • looked up to
        • well respected
        • assertive and popular
        • AO2- Parents, family, peers
      • Dorothy Hobson
        • carried out a study among various office members. she asked the manager to show their teams episodes of the soap opera 'Crossroads'. she found that after they watched it was a conversation starter, but also found evidence that their opinioms and views of the series after watching it was influenced by an opinion leader
      • Evaluation
        • most of our recommendations don't come from family or friends they come from the media themselves e.g Netflix recommends TV shows/films you might like
        • this model exaggerates the impact pf the media and the role of the opinion leader- they can still reject the opinion leader's interpretation
    • The Uses and Gratification Model
      • McQuail and Lull
        • see media audiences as active
      • have suggested that people use media to meet their own particular needs
        • diversion
        • personal relationships
        • personal identity
        • surveillance
        • background wallpaper
      • Evaluation
        • the model overestimates the power of the audience to influence media content, and also underestimates the power and influence of media
        • focuses too much on use of media by individuals doesn't allow for the group aspects of media audiences unlike two step flow which recognises that people often relate to media in social groups
        • ignores wider social factors affecting audience's responses
    • The Cultural Effects Model
      • Encoding & Decoding= Reception Analysis


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