Ownership and Control of the Mass Media

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What have media companies become?

  • Media companies have become more and more transnational
  • Transnational means that media compnaies operate in countries all over the world
  • The ownership of the mass media has increasingly concentrated into fewer and fewer transnational corporations
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What is the effect of transnational corporations?

  • 9 out of 10 of the biggest companies are American owned
  • The concern is that these giant corporations will buy out smaller companies over the world and undermine other cultures
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Other developments in media ownership

  • Rupert Murdock's New Corporation has broadened from newspapers to televison, broadcasting, cinema and publishing
  • This cross media ownership has produced media conglomerates
  • Cross media is when a company owns a range of media forms such as TV and newspapers
  • Media conglomerates is an organisation who owns a number of companies in various mass media such as TV, radio, publishing and film
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What is vertical intergration?

  • Media companies may diversify into non - media
  • An example would be the Disney - branched into theme parks, toys etc
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What has media conglomerates increased?

  • Media conglomerates have increased the pace of vertical intergration
  • Vertical intergration is where media companies control every stage in the production of media content
  • Example of vertical intergration is a film production company, who may also own transport and distribution companies and a cinema
  • They are controlling the shooting of the film, to the showing and then even selling popcorn


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What has digital technology done to the media?

  • Digital technology has enabled media companies to diversify into a wider range of products and markets
  • This is media intergration
  • Example is Time Warner and AOL joining, Time Warner has gained an internet link and has remained one of the most powerful corporation in the world 
  • Example is Virgin and BT providing TV and FILM on demand
  • Example is mobile phones which also have cameras, TV and internet
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Media intergration

  • Media intergration is known as synergy
  • Synergy is the intergration of different media forms this has allowed the following:
  • Media products before were seperate now they can be packaged, for example when you buy Harry Potter DVD, you can get the toys, playstaion game and action figures aswell
  • The ownership of the companies who used create these goods are now in the hands of one corporation

- Disney for example can use its DVD to promote its other film and toys

This is known as intracorporate cross- promotion

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