marram grass

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  • Marram grass
    • Shallow roots
      • allows marram grass to absorb as much water as possible when it rains
    • Long roots
      • enables plant to reach water that is deep underground
    • Thick waxy cuticle
      • Reflects sunlight so it does not evaporate water, and makes leaf waterproof
    • Lower epidermis is covered in hair
      • reduces air movement so that water vapour is retained close to lower epidermis
    • Leaves contain lignified cell walls
      • Helps provide plant support when turgidity is lost
    • Curled leaf
      • reduces surface area exposed to wind, to reduce transpiration
      • Also allows a microclimate of warm humid air to build to reduce water vapour potential gradient between leaf and outer air, to reduce water loss from stomata
      • Rolled so upper epidermis is on the outside so fewer stomata are exposed to sun
      • When there is a water shortage the leaf curls tighter to reduce transpiration
    • Low density of stomata
      • Fewer stomata means less water is lost
    • Stomata are sunken in pits
      • Makes them less likely to lose water
      • When there is a shortage in water, more stomata close to reduce transpiration
    • Leaves contain lignin
      • This provides strength when turgidity is lost, to keep leaf upright when water is lost
  • Curled leaf
    • reduces surface area exposed to wind, to reduce transpiration
    • Also allows a microclimate of warm humid air to build to reduce water vapour potential gradient between leaf and outer air, to reduce water loss from stomata
    • Rolled so upper epidermis is on the outside so fewer stomata are exposed to sun
    • When there is a water shortage the leaf curls tighter to reduce transpiration

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