Lifestyle, health and risk

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  • Lifestyle, health and risk
    • Open circulatory system
      • insects
      • Blood circulates in larges open spaces
      • A simple heart pumps blood in to cavities surrounding organs
    • Closed circulatory system
      • All vertebrates
      • Blood travels in tubes
        • =Higher blood pressure = more efficient
      • Single circulatory system
        • Fish
        • Heart > Gills > body
      • Double circulatory system
        • Mammels & birds
        • Heart > Lungs > heart > body
    • Structure of the heart
      • Diagram
    • Blood vessels
      • Closed circulatory system
        • All vertebrates
        • Blood travels in tubes
          • =Higher blood pressure = more efficient
        • Single circulatory system
          • Fish
          • Heart > Gills > body
        • Double circulatory system
          • Mammels & birds
          • Heart > Lungs > heart > body
      • Arteries
        • Well defined, round lumen
        • Elastic, stretchy structre
        • Withstand high blood pressure
        • elastic recoil
        • Carry blood awy from the heart
      • Veins
        • Less elastic muscle tissue
        • One way valves
        • Larger, less defined lumen
        • Low blood pressure
        • Carries blood to th heart
      • Capillaries
        • One blood cell thick
        • exchange of materials betwean the body cells and blood
    • The cardiac cycle
      • Cardiac diastole > atrial systole > ventricular systole
    • Blood pressure
      • Hypertension = elevated blood pressure
        • one of the most common factors of Cardiovascular disease.
      • Measure of hydrostatic force of blood against the wall of a blood vessel.
      • Systolic = hearts contracted, Diastolic = hearts relaxed
        • Systolic / Diastolic
      • Spygmomanometer - device used to measure blood pressure
        • Measured in mmHg = millimetres of mercury
          • Systolic / Diastolic
    • Studies
      • Cohort study
        • Follow lots of people over time to see who develops the disease and who does not.
      • Case controlled study
        • A group who have the disease are compared with a group who don't.
    • Carbohydrates
      • 'hydrated carbon'
        • Carbon can bond with itself to form chains.
          • Saccharides end in -ose, glucOSE, all saccharides are sugars.
      • monosaccharides = 1 sugar unit
        • Condensation reaction
          • Makes glycosidic bonds
            • Disaccharide = 2 sugar units
              • Condensation reaction
                • Polysaccharide = 3 or more sugar units
      • Hydration reaction
        • Breaks glyosidic bonds
    • Water
      • 2 hydrogen atoms covalently bonded to an oxygen atom.
      • Has a high cohesion because of hydrogen bonding
        • This gives water a high surface tension allowing small organisms to walk on it.

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