Levels of processing

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  • Levels of Processing Theory
    • Craik and Lockhart 1972
    • General
      • Structural
        • Phonological
          • Semantic
            • Deep processing
            • Strong memory trace
        • Shallow processing
        • Weak memory trace
      • Incoming stimuli pass through a series of analytic mechanisms
      • strength of trace depends on ; attention, depth of processing, connections with existing knowledge
      • prediction: the amount of recall depends on how deep the stimuli are processed
      • Deep processing- Semantic processing, elaboration rehearsal
    • Shallow Level
      • processed visually
    • Phonetic Level
      • Processed acoustically, deeper level of processing
    • Semantic Level
      • processed semantically, deepest level
    • Experiments
      • Elias and Perfetti 1973- greater recognition of words they throught of similes for rather than words they thought of rhymes for
      • Craik and Tulving 1975- highest recognition of  semantic stimuli, then phono, then structural
      • Morris et al 1977- semantic not always best, with recognition semantic was best, with rhyming recognition phono was best
    • Eval- Influential model, focussed researchers on processes they tended to neglect. Nature of a trace depends on encoding processes- well supported
    • Real life applications- reworking, method of loci, imagery
    • Rehersal
      • Simple maintenance rehearsal- holds information, prevents it being forgotten, doesn't lead to LTM
      • Elaborative rehearsal- increases depth information is processed. Analysis/ evaluation of the information. leads to LTM


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