Levels of Processing

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  • Levels of Processing (Framework for Memory Research)
    • Framework for memory research, developed by Craik & Lockhart (1972) to explain how memory works
    • How well information is remembered depends directly on how it is processed
      • Memory is a by-product of the information processing that occurs when attending to that information
    • Unlike the msm, Craik & Lockhart argue that there are 2 main types of rehearsal needed to transfer information to the ltm
      • Maintenance rehearsal; going over information again and again
      • Elaborative rehearsal - recoding the information in some way
    • Simply rehearsing information is not sufficient to account for ltm, it is the level/depth of the processing of information that determines the durability of the memory
    • There are three levels at which information is processed - structural, phonetic and semantic
      • Structural processing is the shallowest type of information processing, semantic is the deepest
    • Structural: processing information for what it looks like, eg. whether or not a word is written in capital letters
      • Shallowest form of information processing; involves the least cognitive effort so information at this level will be harder to remember or forgotten
    • Phonetic: processing information for what it sounds like, eg. does the word rhyme with another word
    • Semantic: processing information for what it means, eg. does it have the same meaning as another word
      • Deepest form of information processing; involves the most cognitive effort so information at this level should be easily accessible and well remembered

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