Describe and Evaluate Levels of Processing Framework for Memory

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  • Created by: jill
  • Created on: 01-12-14 18:47
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  • Levels of Processing Framework, Craik & Lockhart (1972)
    • Central Processor that decided how things should be processed. Memory is a by-product of this information processing
    • Three Levels of Processing
      • Structural processing. What something looks like. Shallowest form of processng
      • Phonemic Processing. What it sounds like. Intermediate level of processing
      • Semantic Processing. What it means. Deepest level of processing.
    • Evaluation
      • Strengths
        • Supporting study - Craik & Tulving 1975. Found higher recall for semantically processed words
        • Supporting Study - Hyde & Jenkins 1973. Higher recall when processed meaning of word (eg pleasantness)
        • Support from lab experiments. Controlled and replicable so likely to be reliable
        • Applicability - use processing for meaning to help you learn/revise better. Learn languages and learning to read (but Synthetic Phonics often used)
      • Weaknesses
        • Conflicting study - Morris et al (1977) pps remembered more words processed phonetically rather than semantically
        • Conflicting study (Reber et al (1994. Emotional content of words affects their ability to be remembered
        • As lab experiments used to support may lack ecological validity
        • Description rather than explanation (like Milgram's Agency Theory)
        • Circular logic of meaning processing/depth of processing
    • Problems with MSM and sought to address these
      • EG -why can we revise something for hours and still not remember it but watch something interesting and remember all of it
      • Wanted to focus on processing rather than structure
      • This suggests more than one type of rehearsal (two types)
        • Type I - Maintenance Rehearsal. This is rehearsing it to remember it for a short time (weak memory trace)
        • Type II - Elaborative Rehearsal. This is when it is considered more deeply and meaning is attached (stronger memory trace)


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