Define cognitive psychology showing understanding that the approach is about the role of cognition/cognitive processes in human behaviour.
THE ROLE OF COGNITIVE PROCESSES IN HUMAN BEHAVIOUR
Define and use psychological terminology accurately and
appropriately including the terms:
i information processing - THERE IS AN INPUT, SOME PROCESSING OCCURS, THEN THERE IS OUTPUT.
ii memory - THE PROCESS IN WHICH WE STORE AND RETRIEVE MEMORY
iii forgetting - NOT BEING ABLE TO RECALL A FACT OR EVENT
v retrieval - WHEN A FACT OR EVENT IS RECALLED FROM MEMORY
Identify, describe and apply the following terms:
i natural, laboratory and field experiment (+ evaluation)
NATURAL ENVIRONMENT, IV IS NOT DIRECTLY MANIPULATED BY RESEARCHER. THE VARIABLE IS CHANGED FOR ONE GROUP AND NOT THE OTHER.
- Ecologically valid, IV is naturally occuring so no demand characteristics.
- Usually unique to the situation, so not replicable.
- Lack of controls (extraneous variables)
- Unethical as participants are unaware of experiment taking place.
CONDUCTED IN A CONTROLLED ENVIRONMENT, IV IS DIRECTLY MANIPULATED BY THE RESEARCHER AND THE EFFECT OF THIS CHANGE IS MEASURED BY THE DV.
- Extraneous variable controlled, cause-and-effect relationships can be easily established.
- It is certain that the IV is having a direct effect on the DV.
- As extraneous variables are highly controlled, the environment is very artificial - unlike normal life.
- Outcomes may not be applicable as study was set in artificial conditions.
- Participants could knows its a psychological study due to the environment - leading to demand characteristics.
- The experimenter being present in the experiment can influence the behaviour of participants leading to experimenter effects.
NATURAL ENVIRONMENT, IV IS NATURALLY OCCURING. SO BEHAVIOUR IS TYPICAL OF THE ENVIRONMENT.
- Participants unlikely to know they are taking part in a psychology experiment, so behaviour will be realistic and not subject to demand characteristics/experimenter effects.
ii independent variable (IV) and dependent variable (DV)
THE VARIABLE WHICH THE IS MANIPULATED TO SEE THE EFFECT ON THE DEPENDANT VARIABLE.
THE VARIABLE THAT IS MEASURED TO SEE THE EFFECT OF THE IV
iii experimental hypothesis -
A CAREFULLY DEFINED STATEMENT OF WHAT THE STUDY IS AIMING TO FIND. IV AND DV ARE CLEARLY STATED