Language & Occupation theories

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  • Language & Occupation theorists
    • John Swales
      • Discourse communities
        • within an occupational setting
      • groups of people trying to achieve specific common goals
      • broadly agreed set of goals
      • has mechanisms of intercommunication among each other
        • provides information and feedback
      • acquired specific lexis
      • members must use a suitable degree of relevant content and discoursal expertise
    • Adrian Beard
      • investigated discourse in the context of education
      • aspects of powwer
      • Grice's maxims
      • asymmetrical relationships
    • Howard Giles
      • Accommodation theory
      • convergence- language to match audience
      • divergence- moves away from language of the audience
    • Brown & Levinson
      • Positive politeness
        • show people they are liked and admired
        • compliments
        • social superior- reducing distance
      • Negative politeness
        • shown we want to avoid intruding on others lives
        • results in indirect language that is apologetic and respectful
        • keeping titles
    • Paul Drew & John Heritage
      • workplace talk has 6 defining features
        • one speaker has more power
        • goal alteration
        • more standard
        • turn taking
        • allowable .contributions
        • professional lexis
        • asymmetry
      • Study of workplace talk
    • Paul Drew & John Heritage
      • institutional talk
        • formal nteraction
          • focused on particular tasks with a goal to be achieved
          • fairly rigid, with a stricter structure
          • turn-taking expectations
        • informal interaction
          • inferences based on the task at hand
          • more constrained as to what a an allowable contribution
    • Almut Koester
      • 2004
      • vital for getting jobs done in work place
      • phatic talk
      • builds interpersonal relationships
      • provides interaction about non-work related things
    • Herbert & Straight
      • those in power have authority to start a conversation
      • compliments tend to flow from those of higher rank to those of lower ranks
      • deflecting or rejecting compliments negates that the addressee is superior to the speaker
    • Nelson
      • women talk a lot in the workplace
      • women use half-finished sentences because they speak before they think
      • women link entences with 'and' as they are emotional rather than grammatical
      • women use adverbs and hyperboles
      • women speak more fluently as they use narrow vocabulary
      • women have a preference for veiled expressions and indirect expressions
      • men are responsible for introducing new words into the language
    • Peter Trudgill
      • women more likely to use overt prestige
      • men more susceptible to covert prestige
      • men use a lower prestige to appear 'tough' or 'down-to-earth'
    • Hoenyak
      • shift from work to personal talk is always initiated by the highest ranking person in the room
      • assertion of power
    • Fairclough
      • build consumer
      • draw on members resources- background knowledge
      • building a relationship through personalisation, direct address and imagination
      • builds relationship between employer and employee
      • powerful participant will always constrain the less powerful participant
      • normal turn-taking does not apply

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