Wareing (1999) - Types of power
Political - Power held by politicians, police and law courts
Personal - Hold power as a result of occupation or role eg. teachers and employees
Social Group - Hold power as a result of society eg. class, gender and age
Instrumental - Used by groups or individuals to maintain and enforce authority, eg. legal texts
Influential - Used to influence and persuade others, eg. authority
Fairclough (2001) - Advertising
Synthetic Personalisation - Uses aspects of grammar, lexis and shared knowledge to make the reader feel personally involved in the text.
Creating an image of the product - Visual aspects are used to suggest a particular lifestyle.
Building the consumer - Reader is seen as the ideal consumer of the product and in agreement with the ideologies presented.
Coulthard and Sinclair (1975, 1991)
Adjacency Triplets - eg. A teacher asks a question, a student answers and the teacher comments in response to the answer given.
Coulthard and Sinclair call this the IRF model:
Howard Giles - Accommodation Theory
This theory explains why speakers emphasise or minimise the social distance between each other through their language choices.
Convergence - When to speakers make their language more similar to each other
Divergence - When to speakers make their language more different to each other