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Wareing (1999) - Types of power

Political - Power held by politicians, police and law courts

Personal - Hold power as a result of occupation or role eg. teachers and employees

Social Group - Hold power as a result of society eg. class, gender and age

Instrumental - Used by groups or individuals to maintain and enforce authority, eg. legal texts

Influential - Used to influence and persuade others, eg. authority

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Fairclough (2001) - Advertising

Synthetic Personalisation - Uses aspects of grammar, lexis and shared knowledge to make the reader feel personally involved in the text.

Creating an image of the product - Visual aspects are used to suggest a particular lifestyle.

Building the consumer - Reader is seen as the ideal consumer of the product and in agreement with the ideologies presented.

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Coulthard and Sinclair (1975, 1991)

Adjacency Triplets - eg. A teacher asks a question, a student answers and the teacher comments in response to the answer given.

Coulthard and Sinclair call this the IRF model:




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Howard Giles - Accommodation Theory

This theory explains why speakers emphasise or minimise the social distance between each other through their language choices.

Convergence - When to speakers make their language more similar to each other

Divergence - When to speakers make their language more different to each other

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