key policies

HideShow resource information
View mindmap
  • KEY POLICIES
    • ALEXANDER II
      • TO IMPROVE ECONOMY
        • emancipation of serfs in order to create greater work incentive
        • reformed education in order to allow people to move up the social ladder
          • these did not work as planned as there was too much unrest that was not being dealt with
            • tax rose by 80%
              • no popular representati-on of the population and reforms didn't go far enough
                • revealed the corrupt nature of Tsarism and is said to have been the turning point for its downfall
        • Reutern reforms (1862-1878) encouraged foreign investment and expertise, Trans-Siberian railway
      • EMANCIPAT-ION
        • emancipated the serfs and gave them basic civil rights
        • able to marry whomever they liked
        • given civil rights in their own courts
        • no longer had to be tied to the land
          • didn't work as well as hoped as the redemption payments were extortionate, were spread over 49 years (over life expectancy) and peasants had were bound to the land until they were paid off
      • LOCAL GOVERNM-ENT
        • zemstva's were established to administer poor relief at times of hardship
          • not representative as the provincial zemstva's were made up of almost 80% nobles despite the district being slightly more representative
        • attempted to decentralise the government away from St Petersburg
        • tried to establish a more representative government
    • ALEXANDER III
      • REACTIONA-RY
        • altered and reversed many of his fathers reforms
        • determined to ensure and retain autocracy
        • faces with growing opposition that was encouraged to grow during his fathers reign
        • extended repression and expanded Russia's industrialisati-on process in order to turn people away from revolution
      • POLITICAL REFORM
        • judges were given advice on clear advice on sentences & verdicts and subjected to bribary
        • censorship increased and libraries had restrictions on what books they could stock
        • peasant representation in zemstva was reduced and peasant representativ-es were appointed rather than elected
        • land captains had total authority in court cases and administration was drawn from the gentry
        • police were centralised under the control of the minister of interior
          • created a police state so there was an apparatus of terror with the legislation of torture & the return of the Okhrana
      • SOCIAL REFORMS
        • anti-semitism
        • russification
        • loyalty to tsar was critical
        • 3 pillars to tsarism - autocracy, naytionality & orthodoxy
        • Russian was the only language to be taught in Ukraine & Poland
        • AS increased with vicious attacks (beatings of men & rapes of women & pogroms)
        • peasant land banks 1883 provided cheap loans to help them buy their own land
          • supposed to encourage peasants to create more for themselves
        • land captains in 1889 were repressive in nature, as they had to ensure peasants were monitored & behaving
    • NICHOLAS II
      • POLITICAL REFORM
        • october manifesto - "too little, too late"
        • bloody sunday 1905 was a massive error
        • 1906 fundamental laws maintained autocracy once again - showed the tsar was not willing to change
          • massive error once again. showed the deteriorating leadership and reputation of the tsar
          • no legislation to be passed without royal assent
        • duma's
    • SOCIAL REFORM
      • 1896 - law-  11 hour work day
      • insurance workers system introduced 1903 to protect workers against loss of employment due to injury
      • russification
      • stolypin incorporated social refor,ms
      • all state and crown lands made available to peasant land banks
    • ECONOMIC
      • huge eco progress
      • gold standard
      • foreign investment
      • great spurt
        • coal production doubled
        • iron & steel x7
        • railway track almost doubled in 10 years by 1901
        • foreign investment increased annually by 120%
        • industry income incrased by 119 million roubles in 4 years
        • 1905-1914 annual growth was over 6% - surpassing any other western country
        • after ww1 broke out there was inflation, dfood shortages & military problems as they lost over 4 million in the first year

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar History resources:

See all History resources »See all Russia - 19th and 20th century resources »