Karl Marx (2)

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  • Karl Marx (2)
    • Relations of Production
      • Social relations in which we enter in order to produce and survive
      • Involves cooperation towards a common goal and division of labour
      • Involves power relations between those who control production and those who don't
      • Class arises when the direct producers, those whose labour provides the physical means for society's existence are separated from means of production
      • Means of production are controlled by a non-productive minority
    • Direct Producer in Class Society
      • 1. Spends part of day on necessary labour (what you need to keep alive and working
      • 2. The rest is on surplus labour - additional working time
      • Product of surplus labour is taken by those who control the means of production
      • Class society is therefore based on exploitation
      • Class struggle is dialectic
      • The bourgeoisie (capitalist) and proletariat (labouring) couldn't exist without each other
        • Class struggle is inherent to class society
        • Only struggle or revolution can overcome the contradictions of class societies
    • 'Workers of the world unite, you have nothing to lose but your chains'.
    • Modes of Production
      • Primitive communism
      • Ancient
      • Feudal
      • Capitalism
      • True socialism/ communism
      • Each mode has a distinctive mode of production
        • Transition between them involves revolutionary transformation of relations of production
      • The proletariat are the gravediggers of capitalism
      • Capitalism is a necessary step in the development of humanity towards its destiny
    • Human Nature
      • No such thing as human nature for Marx
      • Across all societies etc what is in common is labour
        • This is the basis of human society
      • Any other views eg. selfish, competitive are conditioned by the nature of the production process
      • When economic base changes so do ideas of human nature
      • Changing ideas of human nature reflect changing ways humanity organises itself


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