Political philosophy. Justice.

Distribution. Types of Justice. Rawls and Nozick.

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  • JUSTICE
    • Social Justice
      • where all persons within society are treated FAIRLY and IMPARTIALLY
        • RAWLS: social justice is NOT happiness of majority rather the individual interests of citizens
    • Distributive Justice
      • If people are getting the goods they are due. Depends on the SYSTEM OF REDISTRIBUTION
        • DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO DESERT
          • Justice: where as much as is possible of basic needs are met
            • System: basic social security, wealth redistribution and taxation
              • Ensures equality but LIMITS INDIVIDUAL LIBERTIES
        • DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO NEED
          • Justice: where each person gets what they DESERVE
            • SYSTEM: no social structre, just accounts of how they deserve the goods
              • MAY LEAD TO VAST INEQUALITIES BETWEEN RICH AND POOR
        • DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO EQUALITY
          • Justice: Goods distributed equally. Goods = many diff things
            • System: egalitarians would have to explain what goods exactly must be equal
              • If goods are given equally regardless of Need or desert, WHY WOULD ANYONE TRY?
      • JOHN RAWLS
        • Egalitarian: Justice requires us to ensure least well off are as well-off as possible
        • argues this using "ORIGINAL POSITION"
        • THE LIBERTY PRINCIPLE: Demand an equal and extensive set of BASIC FREEDOMS for all persons
        • THE DIFFERENCE PRINCIPLE: any inequality in society should favor the least well-off
        • Society: egalitarian, extensive social security, free medical care funded by taxation.
          • criticisms:
            • removes incentive to be productive
            • We would not choose his principles in original position
              • would we really choose to gamble the high stakes of our lives?
            • Original position caters to capitalists societies
              • assumes we'd value liberty over community, however it is just a thought experiment
      • ROBERT NOZICK
        • individuals should be free from state interference.
        • Distributive justice = just acquisitions and just transfers
        • PATTERNED THEORY: distributing goods according to some patterns like need or desert.
          • this is only maintained by constant state interference
        • UN-PATTERNED THEORY: distribution is just if all factors leading to it are just
          • we prefer this because we always exchange goods in an un-patterned way
        • Society: large inequalities between rich and poor. No taxation. no state interference
          • criticisms:
            • Allowing inequalities breaches liberties in other ways
              • taking away redistribution limits others liberties
            • redistribution systems aren't as invasive as he makes it seem.
              • we have taxation, isn't inavsive
            • he doesn't account for how goods are acquired justly.
              • e.g. inheritance.
    • Economic Justice
      • Society is just if it is ECONOMICALLY  just
        • Earn what you own. Receive goods according to desert or need.

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