Ireland 1868-1914

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  • Created on: 16-03-16 11:51
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  • Ireland 1868-1914
    • Gladstones First Ministry 1868-1874
      • 1st Land Act 1870
        • Law that no tenant could be evicted provided he paid rent on time. “Bright Clause” helped tenants buy land yet not many took advantage. 
          •  Act failed to define the rights of tenants and landlords. Landlords could still evict tenants and Act failed to impact a solution between landlords and tenants. 
          • The Govt was unable to legislate for control of Irish rents as property was private. 
      • Irish Church Act 1869
        • Proposed the disestablishment of the Church of Ireland - reducing Church property by 10m.
          • Opposition was faced from the House of Lords which was overcome by speech from Queen Victoria.
      • University Bill 1873
        • This was an attempt to reorganise higher education in Ireland. It failed to pass parliament by three votes because of a religious controversy over the syllabus: history, philosophy, theology
          • This Act was effective but too late and therefore failed.
    • Gladstones Second Ministry 1880-1885
      • Situation in Ireland had worsened from number of factors including Disraeli's inaction and Gladstone's policies face opposition from the House of Lords.
      • Land Compensation Bill 1880
        • Aimed to satisfy Irish to compensate tenants who had been unfairly evicted.
          • Bill failed due to reaction from the Land League discontent.
      • Coercion Act 1881
        • Passed due to increasing violence by Land League leaders and so arrests could be made without a trial.
          • Act placed strain on Liberal Party and dint solve economic problems.
      • 2nd Land Act 1881
        • Act was a concession to Irish giving MP's 3F's: Fair rents, Fixed tenancies and free sale on lease given to tenant who gave up farming.
    • Ireland 1874-1880
      • Rise of Parnell
        • Butts' weak leadership made way for the charismatic Parnell, known for aggressive attitude and contempt for English opinion, a hero for irish nationalists.
      • Economic Depression 1879+ created agrarian movement against landlords: Michael Davitt and Land League.
      • Land War 1879-1883
        • Davitt focused on Land reform and argued all nationalists should fight for constitutional change in Ireland
        • 'New Departure': in 1879 Dublin, Davitt, Parnell and Devoy met to support Home Rule and and tenant demands. Irish protest became one movement.
        • Land League
          • Oct 1879 Davitt formed National Land League with immediate aim to support 3Fs.
      • General Election 1880
        • 61 Home Rulers in Commons were Parnell was elected leader of Irish Parliamentary Party.
    • Ireland and the Ulster Crisis 1910-1914
      • Home Rule Bill 1912
        • Similar to Gladstones 1893 Bill were Irish parliament could pass limited laws.
        • Ulster hostile to Bill, Asquith no rel attempt to face Ulster situation.
        • Bill passed with o absolute veto and Lords could only delay 2 yrs.
      • Ulster Crisis
        • Ulster resisted with meetings creating provincial govt.
        • UVF
          • Drilling and training of volunteer soldiers illegally preparing Ulster to fight.
          • Funding from USA and Germany, smuggling weapons which was made easier by Asquith 'wait and see' policy.
      • Curragh Munity Incident March 1914
        • Govt reinforced rmy depots in Ulster with rumurs of an attack and so Ulster prepred, Govt had no intentions.
        • War office worried of officers loyalties who came from Ulster. Message was shared that if Ulster officers were not to cooperate they would be 'dismissed from the service'.
        • 58 officers referred dismissal and Asquith took charge of War Office.
        • Govt position further weakened.
    • Gladstone and the Irish Question 1880-1886
      • 2nd Land Act 1881
      • Coercion Act 1881
        • Caused uproar with Irish MPs who used tactic of filibustering in House of Commons for 41hrs disagreeing with giving authorities powers to arrest and imprisonment.
          • Act served to unify Irish party and strengthened Parnell's reputation.
      • Parnell's Arrest
        • Parnell Arrested: In October 1881, after a rousing speech by Parnell, the leaders of the Land League were imprisoned in Kilmainham Gaol.  A "no rent" movement was launched in protest at his imprisonment, though it largely failed
      • Kilmainham Treaty 1882
        • Parnell's arrest led to worse violence and so so the Irish part cooperated with the Liberal Govt pushing for home Rule by constitutional means.
        • Terms of Kilmainham Treaty: (For Gladstone)Release Parnell, Relax Coercion Act, Amend Land Act.
          • Untitled
        • Terms of Treaty: (For Parnell) use influence to end violence, Accept/ Support Land Act and further Liberal Irish reforms.
    • Ireland 1886-1901
      • Gladstone conversion to Home Rule 1886
        • Long-term Anglo-Irish relations
        • Political Tactics where Gladstone's Irish policy would win or keep his political power.
      • 1st Home Rule Bill 1886
        • Intention was to resolve Irish grievances whilst preserving the Union.
        • Bill was defeated and following general election defeat for Liberals shown Home Rule hate in England.
      • 2nd Home Rule Bill 1893
        • Passed Commons but failed Conservatives dominated Lords, 1895 election was a disaster for Liberals.
        • Home Rule would never pass Lords, convinced Gladstone that reform of HoL was a necessity prelude for any radical programme.
      • Conservative Policies
        • Conservative policy: 'Killing Home Rule by kindness' or 'Constructive Unionism'.
        • Balfour (Irish Secretary 1887-1892) introduced mix of coercion against opposition and reform that eased the opposition to the Union. he had notable success.
        • Radical Reform 1885-92, e,g:  2 land purchase acts 1887 and 1891 to increase money for tenants to buy land.
        • Crimes Act 1887
          • Allow magistrates to detain persons suspected of agrarian crimes. (Land League)
        • Land Act 1903
          • Dramatically accelerated land purchase.
  • Gladstone and the Irish Question 1880-1886
    • 2nd Land Act 1881
    • Coercion Act 1881
      • Caused uproar with Irish MPs who used tactic of filibustering in House of Commons for 41hrs disagreeing with giving authorities powers to arrest and imprisonment.
        • Act served to unify Irish party and strengthened Parnell's reputation.
    • Parnell's Arrest
      • Parnell Arrested: In October 1881, after a rousing speech by Parnell, the leaders of the Land League were imprisoned in Kilmainham Gaol.  A "no rent" movement was launched in protest at his imprisonment, though it largely failed
    • Kilmainham Treaty 1882
      • Parnell's arrest led to worse violence and so so the Irish part cooperated with the Liberal Govt pushing for home Rule by constitutional means.
      • Terms of Kilmainham Treaty: (For Gladstone)Release Parnell, Relax Coercion Act, Amend Land Act.
        • Untitled
      • Terms of Treaty: (For Parnell) use influence to end violence, Accept/ Support Land Act and further Liberal Irish reforms.

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