Ireland 1868-1914

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  • Ireland 1868-1914
    • Gladstones 1st Ministry 1868-1974
      • 'My mission is to pacify Ireland'
        • The Irish Church Act 1869
          • Gladstone promised to disestablish the Church in Ireland.
            • Causes
              • There was fenian violence so pacification was vaital.
                • The house of Lords accepted that the electorate had spoken so acted moderately.
                  • Terms
                    • Anglican Church in Ireland was disestablished
                      • The church in Ireland was disendowed and the government used the funds for hospitals and schools in Ireland.
                        • Criticisms
                          • It was argued that it weakened the protestant ascendancy
                          • The Irish were not entirely satisfied
      • The First Land Act 1870
        • Gladstone didn't support property rights but would resolve abuses in order to prevent the need for political reform.
          • Terms
            • Legalised the Ulster Tenant Rights
            • Land courts were set up to ensure landlords don't charge exorbitant rents.
              • Failed
                • There was no definition of 'exorbitant' rent so landlords raised rents.
                  • Criticisms
                    • The act suited no one. Peasants had no security and Landlords resented the fact they had to rights over tenants
                    • The act was deliberately weak as more radical measures would not pas the House of Lords.
                • Land lords always sided with Landlords & Legal fees made it expensive
      • Irish Universities Bill 1871
        • The Bill was Gladstone's attempt to appeal moderate, uncommitted non sectarian element with Irish politics.
          • Terms
            • As a gesture to Ireland he supported the creation of new University of Dublin by uniting the colleges.
              • Opposition
                • R.C leaders wanted a seperate catholic University.
                • Anglicans objected to the loss of Trinity college
                  • Political Significance
                    • 43 Liberals voted against the Bill, and it showed the danger to the party of Irish measures which were too radical.
                    • The Bill may have helped the election of Disraeli and 59 Home Rulers in 1874.
                • Many Whig and Conservatives saw it as betrayal of the Anglican Church.
      • Conclusion
        • Gladstone had resolved religious issues.
        • Gladstone had failed in Ireland as the measures did not go far enough for the majority of the irish.
    • Gladstone's 2nd Ministry 1880-1885
      • Gladstone wasn't in a strong position as the situation in Ireland had worsened.
        • Disralei's inaction. Irish economy had declined further.
      • The Land Compensation Bill 1880
        • Aim
          • Concession to Ireland. it was placate the Irish
            • Terms
              • it was to compensate tentants who had been unfairly treated.
              • Gladstone insisted thar the only long term solution to Irish problems was further land reforms.
                • Irish Response
                  • the Faliure of the Bill agravated existing Land League discontent and strengthened their resolved
                  • Parnell wantedf the boycotting of any taking the land of an evicted tenant
      • The Coercion Act 1881
        • Aim
          • Repression. It was passed due to the increasing violence and the acquittal of Land league leaders.
            • Terms
              • the Lord Lieutenant could now arrest and imprison without trial those suspected of rural disorder.
                • Results
                  • The Act placed a great strain on the Liberal party.
    • Ireland 1874-1880
      • Disraeli was keen to ignore Ireland as far as possible as it would cause difficulties within his party.
      • Rise of Parnell
        • In 1874 the Home Rulers formed themselves into an independent Home Rule Party
          • In 1874 they won 59 seats and it was down to teh Secret Ballot Act 1872.
          • Charles Stewart Parnell  was the more miliant element of the party as he started to employ tactics of obstruction
      • Irish Economic Depression
        • Food prices slumped and farmers incomes drastically fell. the demands for lower rent then came
      • The National Land League
        • in 1879 Dvitt formed the National Land League, which was a powerful social and economic pressure group
          • Their actions would strengthen the position og Home Rule MP's
          • Land reforms would improve tenant-landlord relations.
    • Gladstone and the Irish Question 1880-1886
      • The second Land Act 1881
        • irish tenants were given the 3 Fs and it included a land purchse scheme.
        • The Act helped to redress many of the short comings of the 1870 Land Act and broke the league
    • Ireland and the Ulster crisis 1910-1914
      • Home Rule Bill 1912
        • Fundamentally the same as Gladstone's Bill in 1912
          • An Irish Parliament in Dublin with powers to pass some limited laws
            • Final authority especially over finance, defense & foreign affairs
              • Ulster was to come under the control of the new Irish Parliament
                • 42 Irish MPs were to have seats in Westminster
        • It was a moderate measure but Ulster was still hostile
          • The people were largely protestant and Ulster had an industrial economy
      • The Ulster Crisis
        • before the Home Bill was presented in the commons the Ulster Unionist Council began to organise resistance
          • Two men emerged as the main leaders of the Irish unionist resistance- Sir Edward Carson and James Craig
          • The UVF
            • Sporadic drilling and training of voluneteer soldiers had been illegally taking place for some time in Ulster, they were under the leadership of Lieutenant-General Sir George Richardson who was retired from the British Army
            • Funding Resistance
              • The Anglo-Irish and the buisnessmen of Belfast contributed freely to the campaign, substantial cash came from Germany
              • Asquith provided no strong leadership or decisive action
            • Reasons for resistance
              • The Ulstermenargued that as a minority group within the empire they wanted to maintain their constitutional position as loyal citizens to the king.
                • there was no safeguards put in place, Home Rule might lead to independance
            • Conservative response
              • Bonar Law was sympathetic to the claims and understood carsons views and stood with him at Balmoral 1912.
                • He was entirely protecting the constitutional rights of the minority
            • Liberal Response
      • The Curragh Mutiny March 1914
        • The Government decided to reinforce the army depots in Ulster and it led to rumours that the army was to be used t to invade Ulster and crush the UVF
        • In the situation the war office became worried about the loyalty of officers stationed in Ireland many of whom came from Ulster
      • The Larne gun-running incident April 1914
        • The UVF was able to obtaine 35,000 rifles and 5 million rounds of ammunition from Germany
        • The government was left embarrassed and demoralised by both the Currsgh Mutiny and the Larne incident

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