Investigating the genetic basis of behaviour

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  • Investigating the genetic basis of behaviour
    • Adoption studies
      • Plomin, Fulker, Corley and DeFries- adopted children becoming 16 became more similar to biological parents in cognitive and verbal ability
      • Scarr and Weinberg- black children moving into higher socioeconomic homes holding 1+ biological child were initially more similar to biological (0.43 concordance) than adopted (0.29) parents
        • However, interracial siblings also showed similarities, though they haven't genes in common
    • Family studies
      • Gianoulakis, Krishnan and Thavundayil- sons of alcoholic fathers are more likely to be alcoholics themselves, and when they drank, they released more endorphins
      • Zajonc and Markus- IQ of 40,000 Dutch males born in 1944 was related to birth order and family size- larger families= less attention, more physically deprived environment= lower IQ
    • Selective breeding
      • Breed: fruit flies to be more/ less light sensitive, mice more/ less alcohol dependent, dogs excitable/ lethargic and chickens aggressive and sexually active
      • Cooper and Zubeck- 'maze dull' rats, at maturity, made the same no. of mistakes as 'maze bright' rats reared in the same stimulating environment
      • Tryon- offspring of 'maze bright' rats ran a maze faster, with fewer errors, than those of 'maze dull' rats
    • Twin studies
      • Bouchard and McGue- on correlation coefficient for IQ on rearing- MZ twins together (0.86), apart (0.72); DZ together (0.60), siblings/DZ apart 0.24
      • Wilson- by 18months, MZ twins were more similar than DZ in intelligence, and over the next 13 years. Plomin- DZ twins had different genotypes directing them on separate developmental paths


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