The Biological Approach

  • Created by: mayono1
  • Created on: 02-05-18 19:47
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  • The Biological Approach
    • The genetic basis of behaviour
      • Twin studies are used to determine the likelihood that specific traits have a genetic basis by comparing concordance rates between pairs of twins.
        • Other studies can be used like: family studies, adoption studies and selective breeding.
      • If monozygotic twins (identical) are found to have higher concordance rates than dizygotic (non-indentical) twins, this would suggest a genetic basis.
        • This is because MZ twins share 100% of genes and DZ share 50% of genes.
    • Genotype and Phenotype
      • Genotype = their actual genetic makeup, Phenotype = the way genes are expressed through physical, behavioural and psychological characteristics
        • Genoype + environment = phenotype
      • Phenotypes between twins can be different as one may have changed a characteristic (dyed hair, exercise etc) but genotypes are the same
      • Much of human behaviour depends upon an interaction between inherited factors (nature) and the environment (nurture).
    • Assumptions
      • Investigates how biological structures + processes within the body impacts the behaviour.
      • Provide evidence for the extent to which behaviors, or characteristics such as intelligence, are the product of inheritance or environmental influence.
      • Genes affect behaviour
    • Evolution and behaviour
      • Charles Darwin proposed the theory of natural selection. The main aspect of this theory is that any genetically determined behaviour that enhances survival will continue in generations.
      • In nature, the selection happens because some traits give an advantage. The survivor then reproduces and passes on these good traits.
    • Evaluation
      • Strengths
        • The biological approach is reliable. This is because it uses scientific methods like scanning techniques (fMRIs and EEGs) which produces accurate results that aren't open to bias.
        • It can be applied to real life. Psychoactive drugs were developed because of the increased understanding of biochem processes in the brain. It means that sufferers are able to manage their condition.
  • Monzygotic = one zygote - formed when a fertilised cell splits into 2 and forms 2 seperate embryos.
  • Dizygotic = two zygotes - formed when 2 seperate eggs oth get fertilised by different sperm cells
  • Concordance rate = a term that's used to describe the rate of probability that 2 people with shared genes will develop the same diseases or conditions.

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