Industrialisation of Russia 1855-1917

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  • Industrialisation
    • WITTE 'S GREAT SPURT (92-03)
      • Increased Railways
        • Trans-siberian railway = exports and army
        • Railways nationalised (66% by 05) = cheaper
        • encouraged industry
        • (81-87) = 632 km, (05) =59,616 km
          • Size of Russia - not good ENOUGH
      • Heavy industry
        • textiles was 1.5 times greater than heavy industry
        • INCREASED NO. OF FACTORIES
          • (87) = 31,000 by (08) = 40,000
        • Increased industry in coal, pig-iron and crude oil
      • 4th Largest industrial economy
      • New rouble = gold standard = encouraged  trade
        • Foreign investment from West (80) - 91 Mill roubles - (00) 911 mill roubles
          • Got Western expert advice to help modernise Russia
      • Rural development forgotten
      • Many moved to cities for work by conditions were bad
      • Straight to second stage of industrialisation without unrest
    • STOLYPIN
      • AGRARIAN REORMS
        • Prevent revolution
        • Kulaks would  be bulwark against rev. and loyal to the Tsar for increased wealth
          • HELP PEASANTS
        • Abolish Mir
          • area of discontent
          • they could own their land
          • Land not in strips so better farming
          • They could leave the Mir
        • Removed redemption payments
      • Developed a strong police force
        • Court martials
      • Migration to siberia
        • Better farming elsewhere
      • Peasants' Land Bank
        • Increased Peasant ownership
      • War and limited time prevented success
        • strip farming still happening
        • at expense of poorer peasants
        • 14% was made private
        • Many peasants did not want to give up Mir
    • VYSHNEGRADSKY (87-92)
      • French loans and foreign investment
      • Raised import taxes to 33% so Russia could compete
      • 'We must go hungry, but export' = GREAT FAMINE (91-92)
      • New farm implements
        • BUT... he taxed them so no one bought them.
      • Increased land taxes on peasants
      • Put Russian economy in surplus!
    • BUNGE  (81-87)
      • Peasants' Land Bank & Noble's Land Bank
        • Low credit to peasants and Noble's to encourage to buy land
      • Wanted to control govt. expenditure
      • But there was no capital around
    • REUTERN
      • New system of the country's finances. Russia published its own accounts
        • Not implemented fully - no change
      • Tax-farming was abolished - so they would invest elsewhere.
        • 60% of Govt. revenue came from indirect taxes - new tax system was not implemented
      • Start of foreign investment by capturing some American industries after USA civil war.
        • Poor communication = poor export and import of goods
      • Began coal mining - source of income
        • No protective tarrifs on importts
  • (81-87) = 632 km, (05) =59,616 km
    • Size of Russia - not good ENOUGH

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